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Vitamina D

Formas complementarias/Nombres alternativos

Colecalciferol (vitamina D3), ergocalciferol (vitamina D2)

Introducción

La vitamina D se encuentra en el pescado, la leche y la luz solar. El cuerpo necesita vitamina D para estimular el crecimiento de los huesos. Se usa para prevenir y tratar el escorbuto. Se utiliza vitamina D para fortalecer los huesos y aliviar los síntomas de la depresión. También se utiliza para promover la salud de los órganos y la sangre.

La vitamina D se puede tomar en forma de comprimido, polvo o tintura. También la puede inyectar en el torrente circulatorio o en los músculos un proveedor de atención médica.

Dosificación

600 IU (unidades internacionales) diariamente

Lo que muestra la investigación

Probablemente eficaz

  • Dermatitis atópica : probablemente sirva para aliviar la severidad D1
  • Enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica (EPOC) : probablemente sirva para disminuir la frecuencia de las reagudizaciones en gente con niveles bajos de 25-hidroxivitamina D K1
  • Dolor crónico : probablemente sirva para aliviar el dolor L1
  • Depresión : probablemente sirva para mejorar los síntomas O1-O3
  • Diabetes : probablemente sirva para mejorar los niveles de glucosa en sangre y la sensibilidad a la insulina P1-P6
  • Fracturas : probablemente sirva para disminuir el riesgo en adultos de edad avanzada W1
  • Sensibilidad a la insulina : probablemente sirva para ayudar a controlar los niveles de glucosa e insulina AA1
  • Osteoporosis : probablemente sirva para aliviar los síntomas y prevenir las fracturas EE1
  • Síndrome de ovario poliquístico : probablemente sirva para ayudar a regular el ciclo menstrual y a mejorar la sensibilidad a la insulina HH1, HH2
  • Hipocalciemia postiroidectomía : probablemente sirva para prevenir cuando se toma con vitamina de calcio II1
  • Apoyo durante el embarazo : probablemente sirva para prevenir la preeclampsia, el bajo peso al nacer y el parto prematuro; es posible que reduzca el riesgo de rinofaringitis en lactantes KK1-KK6

Es posible que sea eficaz

  • Asma : es posible que reduzca la frecuencia de reagudizaciones C1-C3
  • Enfermedades reumáticas inmunitarias : es posible que reduzca las reagudizaciones de artritis reumática Y1
  • Infección de las vías respiratorias altas : es posible que proteja contra infecciones MM1

Es posible que no sea eficaz

  • Función cognitiva : es posible que no prevenga el deterioro cognitivo o la demencia M1
  • Subfertilidad femenina : es posible que no proporcione beneficios S1
  • Infecciones en niños : es posible que no prevenga la neumonía o diarrea en niños menores de cinco años Z1

Poco probable que sea eficaz

  • Mortalidad por todas las causas : es poco probable que disminuya A1
  • Enfermedad de Alzheimer : es poco probable que proporcione beneficios B1
  • Insuficiencia cardíaca crónica : es poco probable que mejore la función ventricular izquierda o la tolerancia al ejercicio G1
  • Artromialgia crónica no específica : es poco probable que alivie el dolor J1
  • Presión arterial alta : es poco probable que disminuya V1, V2
  • : es poco probable que mejore los síntomas CC1, CC2
  • Salud osteomuscular : es poco probable que prevenga fracturas o caídas o que afecten la densidad mineral ósea DD1
  • Enfermedad de Parkinson : es poco probable que mejore la función motora FF1
  • Prediabetes : es poco probable que mejore la resistencia a la insulina JJ1

No hay suficientes datos para evaluar

  • Prevención de cáncer E1
  • Enfermedad cardiovascular F1
  • Enfermedad renal crónica H1
  • Enfermedad hepática crónica F1
  • Fibrosis quística N1
  • Nefropatía diabética Q1
  • Prevención de caídas en adultos de edad avanzada R2
  • Infección por hepatitis C U1
  • Cuidado por fractura de cadera W1
  • Infección por VIH en adultos X1
  • Artrosis en la rodilla BB1, BB2
  • Neumonía GG1
  • Cáncer de próstata (prevención) LL1, LL2

El proceso editorial y la descripción de las categorías de evidencia se pueden encontrar en EBSCO NAT Editorial Process.

Notas de seguridad

Es probable que sea seguro tomar vitamina D en pequeñas dosis durante un período corto. Es posible que tomar dosis elevadas durante un período prolongado no sea seguro. Las mujeres que están embarazadas o amamantando no deben tomar más de 600 UI de vitamina D por día.

Interacciones

Hable con su médico sobre los suplementos o tratamientos que le gustaría usar. Algunos pueden interferir con el tratamiento o empeorar las condiciones, por ejemplo:

  • Las personas con hipercalciemia no debe tomar vitamina D. Empeorará los síntomas.
 

References

A. All-Cause Mortality

A1. Zhang Y, Fang F, et al. Association between vitamin D supplementation and mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2019 Aug 12;366:l4673.

B. Alzheimer Disease

B1. Muñoz Fernández SS, Ivanauskas T, et al. Nutritional Strategies in the Management of Alzheimer Disease: Systematic Review With Network Meta-Analysis. J Am Med Dir Assoc. 2017 Oct 1;18(10):897.e13-897.e30.

C. Asthma

C1. Luo J, Liu D, et al. Can Vitamin D Supplementation in Addition to Asthma Controllers Improve Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Asthma?: A Meta-Analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2015 Dec;94(50):e2185.

C2. Fares MM, Alkhaled LH, et al. Vitamin D supplementation in children with asthma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. BMC Res Notes. 2015;8:23.

C3. Jolliffe DA, Greenberg L, et al. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent asthma exacerbations: a systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. Lancet Respir Med. 2017 Nov;5(11):881-890.

D. Atopic Dermatitis

D1. Kim MJ, Kim SN, et al. Vitamin D Status and Efficacy of Vitamin Supplementation in Atopic Dermatitis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2016;8(12):E789.

E. Cancer Prevention

E1. Bjelakovic G, Gluud LL, et al. Vitamin D supplementation for prevention of cancer in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(6):CD007469.

F. Cardiovascular Disease

F1. Jenkins DJA, Spence JD, et al. Supplemental Vitamins and Minerals for CVD Prevention and Treatment. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2018;71(22):2570-2584

G. Chronic Heart Failure

G1. Jiang WL, Gu HB, et al. Vitamin D Supplementation in the Treatment of Chronic Heart Failure: A Meta-analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Clin Cardiol. 2016 Jan;39(1):56-61.

H. Chronic Kidney Disease

H1. Lu RJ, Zhu SM, et al. Effects of vitamin D or its analogues on the mortality of patients with chronic kidney disease: an updated systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2017;71(6):683-693.

I. Chronic Liver Disease

I1. Bjelakovic G, Nikolova D, et al. Vitmain D supplementation for chronic liver disease in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017;11:CD011564.

J. Chronic Nonspecific Musculoskeletal Pain

J1. Gaikwad M, Vanlint S, et al. Does vitamin D supplementation alleviate chronic nonspecific musculoskeletal pain? A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Rheumatol. 2017 May;36(5):1201-1208.

K. Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

K1. Jolliffe DA, Greenberg L, et al. Vitamin D to prevent exacerbations of COPD: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data from randomised controlled trials. Thorax. 2019 Apr;74(4):337-345.

L. Chronic Pain

L1. Wu Z, Malihi Z, et al. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Pain Physician. 2016 Sep-Oct;19(7):415-427.

M. Cognitive Function

M1. Rutjes AW, Denton DA, et al. Vitamin and mineral supplementation for maintaining cognitive function in cognitively healthy people in mid and late life. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Dec 17;12:CD011906.

N. Cystic Fibrosis

N1. Ferguson JH, Chang AB. Vitamin D supplementation for cystic fibrosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2014;(5):CD007298.

O. Depression

O1. Shaffer JA, Edmonson D, et al. Vitamin D supplementation for depressive symptoms: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Psychosom Med. 2014;76(3):190-196.

O2. Spedding S. Vitamin D and depression: s systematic review and meta-analysis comparing studies with and without biological flaws. Nutrients. 2014;6(4):1501-1518.

O3. Sarris J, Murphy J, et al. Adjunctive Nutraceuticals for Depression: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analyses. Am J Psychiatry. 2016 Jun 1;173(6):575-587.

P. Diabetes

P1. Lee KJ, Lee YJ. Effects of vitamin D on blood pressure in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2016 Apr;54(4):233-242.

P2. Lee CJ, Iyer G, et al. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis of intervention studies. J Diabetes Complications. 2017 Jul;31(7):1115-1126.

P3. Wu C, Qiu S, et al. Vitamin D supplementation and glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Metabolism. 2017;73:67-76.

P4. Krul-Poel YH, Ter Wee MM, et al. MANAGEMENT OF ENDOCRINE DISEASE: The effect of vitamin D supplementation on glycaemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Endocrinol. 2017 Jan;176(1):R1-R14.

P5. Li X, Liu Y, et al. The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Glycemic Control in Type 2 Diabetes Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2018 Mar 19;10(3). pii: E375.

P6. Hu Z, Chen J, et al. Efficacy of vitamin D supplementation on glycemic control in type 2 diabetes patients: A meta-analysis of interventional studies. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019;98(14):e14970.

Q. Diabetic Nephropathy

Q1. Wang Y, Yang S, et al. Effects of Vitamin D Supplementation on Renal Function, Inflammation and Glycemic Control in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy: a Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Kidney Blood Press Res. 2019;44(1):72-87.

R. Fall Prevention in Older Adults

R1. Tricco AC, Thomas SM, et al. Comparisons of Interventions for Preventing Falls in Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA. 2017 Nov 7;318(17):1687-1699.

R2. Cameron ID, Dyer SM, et al. Interventions for preventing falls in older people in care facilities and hospitals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018 Sep 7;9:CD005465.

S. Female Subfertility

S1. Showell MG, Mackenzie-Proctor R, et al. Antioxidants for female subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Jul 28;7:CD007807.

T. Fractures

T1. Sprague S, Petrisor B, et al. What Is the Role of Vitamin D Supplementation in Acute Fracture Patients? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of the Prevalence of Hypovitaminosis D and Supplementation Efficacy. J Orthop Trauma. 2016 Feb;30(2):53-63.

T2. Zhao JG, Zeng XT, et al. Association Between Calcium or Vitamin D Supplementation and Fracture Incidence in Community-Dwelling Older Adults: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. JAMA. 2017 Dec 26;318(24):2466-2482.

U. Hepatitis C Infection

U1. Kim HB, Myung SK, et al. Efficacy of vitamin D supplementation in combination with conventional antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C infection: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. J Hum Nutr Diet. 2018 Apr;31(2):168-177.

V. High Blood Pressure

V1. Wu L, Sun D. Effects of calcium plus vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. J Hum Hypertens. 2017;31(9):547-554.

V2. Qi D, Nie X, et al. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on hypertension in non-CKD populations: A systemic review and meta-analysis. Int J Cardiol. 2017 Jan 15;227:177-186.

W. Hip Fracture Care

W1. Avenell A, Smith TO, et al. Nutritional supplementation for hip fracture aftercare in older people. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Nov 30;11:CD001880.

X. HIV Infection in Adults

X1. Visser ME, Durao S, et al. Micronutrient supplementation in adults with HIV infection. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 May 18;5:CD003650.

Y. Immune-Mediated Rheumatic Diseases

Y1. Franco AS, Freitas TQ, et al. Vitamin D supplementation and disease activity in patients with immune-mediated rheumatic diseases: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2017 Jun;96(23):e7024.

Z. Infections in Children

Z1. Yakoob MY, Salam RA, et al. Vitamin D supplementation for preventing infections in children under five years of age. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016 Nov 9;11:CD008824.

AA. Insulin Sensitivity

AA1. Asbaghi O, Khosroshahi MZ, et al. Effect of Calcium‑Vitamin D Co‑Supplementation on Insulin, Insulin Sensitivity, and Glycemia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials. Horm Metab Res. 2019 May;51(5):288-295.

BB. Knee Osteoarthritis

BB1. Gao XR, Chen YS, et al. The effect of vitamin D supplementation on knee osteoarthritis: A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Int J Surg. 2017;46:14-20.

BB2. Diao N, Yang B, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on knee osteoarthritis: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials. Clin Biochem. 2017;50(18):1312-1316.

CC. Multiple Sclerosis

CC1. Zheng C, He L, et al. The efficacy of vitamin D in multiple sclerosis: A meta-analysis. Mult Scler Relat Disord. 2018;23:56-61.

CC2. Jagannath VA, Filippini G, et al. Vitamin D for the management of multiple sclerosis. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;9:CD008422.

DD. Musculoskeletal Health

DD1. Bolland MJ, Grey A, et al. Effects of vitamin D supplementation on musculoskeletal health: a systematic review, meta-analysis, and trial sequential analysis. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2018 Nov;6(11):847-858.

EE. Osteoporosis

EE1. Cesareo R, Iozzino M, et al. Effectiveness and safety of calcium and vitamin D treatment for postmenopausal osteoporosis. Minerva Endocrinol. 2015;40(3):231-237.

FF. Parkinson Disease

FF1. Zhou Z, Zhou R, et al. The Association Between Vitamin D Status, Vitamin D Supplementation, Sunlight Exposure, and Parkinson's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Med Sci Monit. 2019 Jan 23;25:666-674.

GG. Pneumonia

GG1. Das RR, Singh M, et al. Vitamin D as an adjunct to antibiotics for the treatment of acute childhood pneumonia. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2018;7:CD011597.

HH. Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

HH1. Fang F, Ni K, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on polycystic ovary syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2017;26:53-60.

HH2. Lagowska K, Bajerska J, et al. The Role of Vitamin D Oral Supplementation in Insulin Resistance in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2018 Nov 2;10(11). pii: E1637.

II. Post-thyroidectomy Hypocalcemia

II1. Xing T, Hu Y, et al. Role of oral calcium supplementation alone or with vitamin D in preventing post-thyroidectomy hypocalcaemia: A meta-analysis. Medicine (Baltimore). 2019 Feb;98(8):e14455.

JJ. Prediabetes

JJ1. Poolsup N, Suksomboon N, et al. Effect of vitamin D supplementation on insulin resistance and glycaemic control in prediabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Diabet Med. 2016 Mar;33(3):290-299.

KK. Pregnancy Support

KK1. Palacios C, De-Regil LM, et al. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: Updated meta-analysis on maternal outcomes. J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol. 2016 Nov;164:148-155.

KK2. De-Regil LM, Palacios C, et al. Vitamin D supplementation for women during pregnancy. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2016;(1):CD008873.

KK3. Christensen N, Søndergaard J, et al. Infant Respiratory Tract Infections or Wheeze and Maternal Vitamin D in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2017 Apr;36(4):384-391.

KK4. Khaing W, Vallibhakara SA, et al. Calcium and Vitamin D Supplementation for Prevention of Preeclampsia: A Systematic Review and Network Meta-Analysis. Nutrients. 2017 Oct 18;9(10). pii: E1141.

KK5. Roth DE, Leung M, et al. Vitamin D supplementation during pregnancy: state of the evidence from a systematic review of randomised trials. BMJ. 2017 Nov 29;359:j5237.

KK6. Maugeri A, Barchitta M, et al. Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation During Pregnancy on Birth Size: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials. Nutrients. 2019;11(2):E442.

LL. Prostate Cancer

LL1. Liu Y, Wang X, et al. Vitamin intake and pancreatic cancer risk reduction: A meta-analysis of observational studies. Medicine (Baltimore). 2018 Mar;97(13):e0114.

LL2. Shahvazi S, Soltani S, et al. The Effect of Vitamin D Supplementation on Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Clinical Trials. Horm Metab Res. 2019;51(1):11-21

MM. Upper Respiratory Tract Infection

MM1. Xiao L, Xing C, et al. Vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of childhood acute respiratory infections: a systematic review of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr. 2015 Oct 14;114(7):1026-34.

MM2. Aglipay K, Birken CS, et al. Effect of High-Dose vs Standard-Dose Wintertime Vitamin D Supplementation on Viral Upper Respiratory Tract Infections in Young Healthy Children. JAMA. 2017;318(3):245-254.

MM3. Martineau AR, Jolliffe DA, et al. Vitamin D supplementation to prevent acute respiratory tract infections: systematic review and meta-analysis of individual participant data. BMJ. 2017 Feb 15;356:i6583.

NN. Vitamin D Deficiency After Bariatric Surgery

NN1. Li Z, Zhou X, et al. Vitamin D supplementation for the prevention of vitamin D deficiency after bariatric surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2018 Aug;72(8):1061-1070.

Ultima revisión July 2019 por EBSCO NAT Review Board Eric Hurwitz, DC Last Updated: 3/27/2020