Cholangiocarcinoma is the growth of cancer cells in the bile duct. The bile duct are a number of branching tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gall bladder and small intestine. Bile is a fluid that helps digest food and eliminate waste from the body.
Cholangiocarcinomas can be divided by their location:
Common Bile Duct
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The exact cause is unknown. Gene defects may lead to the growth of cancer cells in the bile duct.
Many different gene defects have been found in tumors. p53 gene abnormalities and K-ras gene abnormalities are two common gene defects that have been seen.
Factors that may increase your risk of cholangiocarcinoma include:
Other possible risk factors are:
In the early stages of the cancer, there may not be any symptoms. As the cancer grows, symptoms may include:
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Blood tests will help to evaluate how the liver and gallbladder are working. These tests may also help to find tumor marker, indicators of cancer in the body.
Tests may be needed to create images of the liver and bile ducts such as:
Other tests may be done to gather more information about the cancer and affected bile ducts such as:
The treatment plan depends on the size and location of the tumor (stage) and your overall health.
Surgery may be done to try to remove the cancer. The bile duct reaches into many organs and surgery may involve more than one organ. For example:
If the cancer cannot be removed, other types of surgery may be done to relieve symptoms. A small tube may be placed inside of a cancerous bile duct to allow bile to flow through it.
Radiation therapy is used to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. Different forms include:
Radiation may be done along with surgery. It may also be the main treatment if cancer cannot be removed.
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. This treatment may be used before or after surgery. If the tumor cannot be removed, chemotherapy may be given, either alone or in combination with radiation therapy.
Clinical trials may be recommended if treatment options are limited for your type of cancer. These trials could offer treatments that are not currently available to most. Talk to your doctor about these options.
You may be able to lower your risk by:
American Cancer Society
BC Cancer Agency
Canadian Cancer Society
Bile duct cancer (cholangiocarcinoma). Johns Hopkins Medicine website. Available at: http://www.hopkins... . Accessed June 18, 2013.
Bile duct cancer. American Cancer Society website. Available at: http://www.cancer.... . Updated March 2, 2011. Accessed June 18, 2013.
Bile duct cancer. Cancer.net website. Available at: http://www.cancer.net/patient/cancer+types/Bile+duct+cancer . Updated February 2012. Accessed June 18, 2013.
Cholangiocarcinoma. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated April 22, 2013. Accessed June 18, 2013.
Cholangiocarcinoma. The Cholangiocarcinoma Foundation website. Available at: http://www.cholangiocarcinoma.org/definition.htm . Accessed June 18, 2013.
Last reviewed December 2013 by Mohei Abouzied, MD
Last Updated: 1/13/2014