Gastroparesis is a disorder that affects the digestive system. During normal digestion, the stomach breaks down food and then contracts to push food down to the small intestine. With gastroparesis, there is delayed emptying of the stomach. Food either moves slowly through the digestive tract or does not move at all. This can pose problems since the food can harden causing blockage, nausea, and vomiting. Bacteria can also start to grow. Gastroparesis is a potentially serious condition. It requires care from your doctor.
Movement of food in the digestive system is controlled by the vagus nerve. Gastroparesis occurs when this nerve is damaged.
The main risk factor is diabetes. Diabetes can damage the vagus nerve, which may lead to gastroparesis. High blood sugar can also damage blood vessels that carry nutrients and oxygen to the vagus nerve, preventing it from working properly. Other risk factors include:
If you have any of these symptoms, do not assume it is due to gastroparesis. These symptoms may be caused by other conditions. Tell your doctor if you have any of these:
The following may worsen symptoms:
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will also be done. The doctor may do:
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:
Managing what you eat can help control gastroparesis. You may work with your doctor or a registered dietician to create a meal plan that is right for you. This may include:
In severe cases, you may need to have nutrients delivered directly to your intestines (skipping the stomach) or directly to your bloodstream. Feeding tubes may be inserted down your throat or through your abdomen and into your intestines to help deliver food. Nutrients may also be given through a thin tube that is placed in one of your veins.
You may be given medicines that treat your symptoms and help your stomach empty. These medicines work by stimulating the stomach muscles to contract. Examples include:
Other medicines may be prescribed to reduce nausea.
In severe cases, your doctor may consider surgery. This may include removing part of the stomach.
To help reduce your chances of getting gastroparesis, take the following steps:
American College of Gastroenterology
American Gastroenterological Association
Canadian Institute for Health Information
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Last reviewed June 2012 by Daus Mahnke, MD
Last Updated: 06/04/2012