Neuroblastoma is a rare, cancer that usually occurs in children under age five. The tumor is often found during infancy and may begin before birth. It typically develops in nerve tissue near the adrenal glands just above the kidneys. However, some tumors may develop in the abdomen, chest, neck, or spinal cord.
Like most cancers, neuroblastoma can eventually spread to other parts of the body. Early detection and treatment may prevent the spread of cancer.
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
It is not known exactly why the tumor develops. A genetic mutation may be involved.
Factors that increase the risk of neuroblastoma include:
Symptoms will depend on the location of the tumor and whether the cancer has spread. Some symptoms may include:
These symptoms may be caused by another condition. If your child has any of these, talk to the doctor right away.
The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Tests will depend on the suspected location of the tumor. Tests may include:
The cancer can spread to the liver, lungs, and bones. Early detection is key to a good prognosis.
Talk with the doctor about the best treatment plan for your child. Treatment options include:
If possible, surgery may be done to remove the tumor.
Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body, killing mostly cancer cells. With radiation therapy, radiation is directed at the tumor to kill the cancer cells. Radiation therapy may be used if the cancer has spread.
During this type of transplant, bone marrow is removed, treated, and frozen. Large doses of chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy are applied to kill the cancer cells. After treatment, the bone marrow is replaced via a vein. Transplanted bone marrow may be your child’s own bone marrow that was treated or it may be marrow from a healthy donor.
Some neuroblastomas go away on their own. It is not known why this happens.
Since the exact cause is unknown, there is no way to prevent this type of tumor from forming.
National Cancer Institute
The Neuroblastoma Children’s Cancer Society
Canadian Cancer Society
Childhood Cancer Foundation
Nemours Foundation, Kids Health. Neuroblastoma. Kids Health website. Available at: http://kidshealth.org/parent/medical/cancer/neuroblastoma.html . Accessed June 18, 2013.
Neuroblastoma. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated May 1, 2013. Accessed June 18, 2013.
Neuroblastoma. National Cancer Institute website. Available at: http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/types/neuroblastoma . Updated May 1, 2013. Accessed June 18, 2013.
Last reviewed June 2013 by Michael Woods, MD
Last Updated: 6/3/2013