Kidney stones are crystallized material in the urine. These stones form in the kidneys or other parts of the urinary tract. The kidneys remove waste (in the form of urine) from the body. They also balance the water and salt content in the blood. There are several types of kidney stones:
Some of the known causes of kidney stones in children include:
These factors increase your child’s chance of developing kidney stones:
Occasionally, kidney stones do not cause symptoms, and they leave the body in the urine. The condition can cause severe pain. Symptoms include:
The doctor will ask about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Tests may include:
Treatment depends on the size and location of the kidney stone. Treatment may include:
For small kidney stones, having your child drink plenty of water will help her body pass the stone in the urine. The doctor may provide a special cup to catch the stone when it passes so that it can be analyzed. If your child is having a hard time keeping fluids down, she may need to be hospitalized to receive fluids in her vein. The doctor may also give your child pain medicine and antibiotics until the stone passes.
Surgery may be needed if the stone is:
Types of surgery include:
If your child is diagnosed as having kidney stones, follow the doctor's instructions.
Once your child has had a kidney stone, he may be more likely to have another. Here are some steps to prevent this condition:
American Urological Association Foundation
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
National Kidney Foundation
The Kidney Foundation of Canada
American Urological Association. Clinical guidelines: ureteral calculi (’07). American Urological Association website. Available at: http://www.auanet.... . Accessed July 13, 2010.
Borghi L, Meschi T, Maggiore U, Prati B. Dietary therapy in idiopathic nephrolithiasis. Nutr Rev . 2006;64:301-312.
Calcium. EBSCO Natural and Alternative Treatments website. Available at: http://therapy.epnet.com/nat/nat.asp . Updated April 2009. Accessed July 13, 2010.
Campell MF, Wein AJ, Kavoussi LR, eds. Campbell-Walsh Urology . 9th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Saunders, Elsevier; 2007.
Caple C. Ketogenic diet in children. EBSCO Nursing Reference Center website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/thisTopic.php?marketID=16&topicID=860 . Published December 4, 2009. Accessed July 13, 2010.
The Children’s Hospital. Kids and kidney stones: a growing problem. The Children’s Hospital website. Available at: http://www.thechil... . Accessed June 29, 2010.
Cincinnati Children’s Hospital. Kidney, bladder, and genitals conditions and diagnoses: bladder/kidney stones. Cincinnati Children’s Hospital website. Available at: http://www.cincinn... . Updated November 2009. Accessed June 29, 2010.
Coe FL, Evan A, Worcester E. Kidney stone disease. J Clin Invest . 2005;115:2598-2608.
Delvecchio FC, Preminger GM. Medical management of stone disease. Curr Opin Urol . 2003 May; 13(3):229-33.
DynaMed Editors. Kidney stones. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed/what.php . Updated June 28, 2010. Accessed June 29, 2010.
Kidney stones in adults. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: http://kidney.niddk.nih.gov/kudiseases/pubs/stonesadults/ . Published October 2007. Accessed July 13, 2010.
Martini LA, Wood RJ. Should dietary calcium and protein be restricted in patients with nephrolithiasis? Nutr Rev . 2000;58:111-117.
National Kidney Foundation. Kidney stones. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: http://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/kidneystones.cfm . Created 2010. Accessed June 29, 2010.
Pearle MS, Lingemann JE, Leveillee R, et al. Prospective, randomized controlled trial comparing shock wave lithotripsy and ureteroscopy for lower pole caliceal calculi 1 cm or less. J Urol . 2005;173:2005-2009.
Last reviewed June 2012 by Kari Kassir, MD
Last Updated: 06/06/2012