Rubella is an infection caused by a virus. If a pregnant women becomes infected she can pass the infection to the unborn baby. This infection can lead to severe birth defects, miscarriage or stillbirth. The health problems due to the infection are called congenital rubella syndrome.
Congenital rubella syndrome is caused by an infection of the rubella virus. The virus first infects the mother. It then passes to the baby during pregnancy. The virus interrupts the development of the baby.
There is a vaccination for rubella. If the mother has not had this vaccination, the baby has an increased risk of infection.
The infection is most dangerous to the baby in the first trimester of pregnancy.
Symptoms can vary depending on the timing of the infection. Some problems caused by congenital rubella include:
Your doctor will ask about your child's symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Other tests may include:
Treatment will depend on the results of the infection. Certain eye and heart defects may be treated with surgery shortly after birth. Early intervention programs may also help babies with hearing loss, vision loss, or intellectual disability. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plans for your child.
Rubella vaccination for the mother can prevent congenital rubella syndrome. Screening for immunity may be done at premarital, preconception, or prenatal medical exams.
Infants with congenital rubella can spread the infection. Anyone taking care of your infant should be vaccinated against rubella.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
March of Dimes
Canadian Paediatric Society
Congenital rubella syndrome. DynaMed website. Available at: http://dynamed102.ebscohost.com/Detail.aspx?id=116060 . Accessed June 24, 2007.
Kleigman RM, Behrman RE, Jenson HB, Stanton BF, eds. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics . 18th ed. Saunders; Philadelphia, PA; 2007.
Rubella. Center for the Evaluation of Risks to Human Reproduction website. Available at: http://cerhr.niehs... . Accessed July 12, 2007.
Zimmerman L, Reef S. Chapter 12: congenital rubella syndrome. VPD Surveillance Manual . 3rd ed. 2002. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov... . Accessed June 24. 2007.
Last reviewed September 2012 by Michael Woods, MD
Last Updated: 09/30/2012