Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a mental health disorder. People with BPD may often have dramatic, emotional, erratic, and attention-seeking moods. This behavior disrupts family and work life, long-term planning, and the individual’s sense of self.
The causes of BPD are not fully understood. It is thought to be a combination of brain chemistry, genetics, and environmental factors. People who develop BPD are probably born vulnerable to the illness. Certain experiences and types of stress may then further increase their chance of developing BPD. Many BPD sufferers are often found to have experienced childhood abuse, neglect, separation, sexual abuse, violence, or brain injury.
BPD is thought to develop from a combination of chemical imbalances in the brain and traumatic life experiences.
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BPD is more common in females. The following factors increase your chances of developing BPD:
The symptoms of BPD vary. People with BPD tend to be extremely sensitive to rejection. They may react with anger and be upset at even mild separation from friends or family. Symptoms often become more acute when people with BPD feel isolated and lonely or during times of particular stress.
Traits that are common to people with BPD include:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. If BPD is suspected, you may be referred to a psychiatrist who specializes in personality disorders.
BPD can affect anyone. It is usually diagnosed in adolescents and young adults. A diagnosis of BPD may be made if a person has a history of the symptoms listed above. In addition, BPD patients almost always have other mental health problems such as:
Treatment options have improved as BPD is better understood. Many BPD sufferers are helped by psychotherapy and medications.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:
Individual, group, and family therapy form the basis of BPD treatment. Individual psychotherapy usually consists of 2-3 sessions a week for a period of years. Group therapy may focus on the same goals but take place in a group of fellow participants. The goal of therapy is to help the person with BPD:
Family therapy may help family members deal with the effects of BPD. It can also provide additional support for the person with BPD.
Cognitive therapy helps you to change patterns of thinking that are unproductive and harmful. For example, some people have unrealistic worries that they’re going crazy or might have a heart attack. Cognitive therapy also helps you identify possible triggers for panic attacks, such as a thought, a situation, or even something that could cause an increase in your heart rate. When you understand the difference between an actual panic attack and a trigger, you have more control over the trigger.
Medication may be prescribed and adjusted based on your symptoms. Medication options may include:
There are no current guidelines to prevent BPD.
Borderline Personality Resource Center—NewYork-Presbyterian, Weill Cornell Medical Center
National Mental Health Association
Borderline Personality Disorder
Canadian Psychological Association
Borderline personality disorder. National Mental Health Association website. Available at: http://www.nmha.org/conditions/borderline-personality-disorder. Accessed November 11, 2014.
What is borderline personality disorder?. National Institute of Mental Health website. Available at: http://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/borderline-personality-disorder/index.shtml. Accessed November 11, 2014.
Last reviewed December 2015 by Adrian Preda, MD Last Updated: 12/20/2014