Hepatitis B is a disease caused by the hepatitis B virus. This virus attacks the liver and cause:
The virus is spread through the blood or other body fluids of an infected person.
Most of these infections clear up without treatment. Others develop into chronic hepatitis B. This can lead to serious problems and death.
The vaccine is given as an injection into the muscle. It is often given in a series of 3 to 4 shots over 6 months.
Most newborns have the first dose of the hepatitis B vaccine (HBV) within 24 hours of birth. Two more injections are given at ages 1 to 2 months and 6 to 18 months.
Some types of HBV will need 4 doses.
The vaccine may also be given to children and teens 18 years or younger who did not get it as babies. There is a 2-dose series for children aged 11 to 15 years.
Adults, 18 years or older, should get vaccinated if they are at high risk for hepatitis B. High risk factors include:
All vaccines have some risk. A severe allergic reaction is the most common risk.
Most who have the vaccine will not have problems. Some may have mild problems. This can include soreness where the shot was given, fatigue, nausea, diarrhea, or fever.
Acetaminophen is sometimes given to reduce pain and fever after a vaccine. However, this can weaken the vaccine in infants and make it less effective. A doctor can discuss risks and benefits.
You should not get the vaccine if you:
Other methods that may reduce the risk of hepatitis B infection are:
In the event of an outbreak, all at-risk people should be offered the vaccine.
WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
2015 Sexually transmitted diseases treatment guidelines. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/std/tg2015/default.htm. Updated December 27, 2019. Accessed February 13, 2020.
Hepatitis B. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/chronic-hepatitis-b-virus-hbv-infection. Updated November 15, 2019. Accessed February 13, 2020.
Hepatitis B vaccination: Information for Healthcare Providers. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/hepb/index.html. Updated March 1, 2017. Accessed February 13, 2020.
Immunization schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/index.html. Updated April 21, 2017. Accessed February 13, 2020.
Last reviewed September 2019 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Marcin Chwistek, MD
Last Updated: 9/18/2020