Amniotic fluid surrounds the baby during pregnancy. As the baby grows, cells from the baby are shed into this fluid. Amniocentesis is the removal of a small amount of the fluid for testing.
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Cells found in the fluid can be used to examine the baby's genes. The test may be done if your baby has a high risk of a birth defect. They can also show if the baby is developing as expected. Depending on your risk factors, cells in the amniotic fluid are tested for:
Later in pregnancy, an amniocentesis may be done to:
An amniocentesis may be recommended:
Your doctor can help you understand the pros and cons of having this test.
Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like:
Factors that may increase your risk of complications include:
Be sure to discuss these risks with your doctor before the procedure.
You may be given a local anesthesia. This numbs a small area in the abdomen where the needle will be placed.
An ultrasound will be used during the procedure. This will allow your doctor to see where the needle is. Your belly will be cleaned. A very thin needle will be inserted through your skin into your uterus. A few teaspoons of amniotic fluid will be removed and the needle will be pulled out. The doctor will make sure that your baby's heartbeat is normal.
About 45 minutes
You may feel cramping when the needle enters your abdomen. You may also feel pressure when the fluid is withdrawn.
A test showing a healthy baby is ideal, but you will need to be prepared if the results are abnormal. If there is a disorder, further counseling can be helpful. Your doctor will work with you on options that are best for you after you know the results.
It is important to monitor your recovery. Alert your doctor to any problems. If any of the following occur, call your doctor:
If you think you have an emergency, call for medical help right away.
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
American Pregnancy Association
Canadian Women's Health Network
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
Chorionic villus sampling (CVS). American Pregnancy Association website. Available at: http://www.americanpregnancy.org/prenataltesting/cvs.html. Updated July 2015. Accessed March 14, 2015.
Hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn (HDFN). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated April 4, 2016. Accessed October 7, 2016.
Later childbearing. American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists website. Available at: http://americanpregnancy.org/prenatal-testing/chorionic-villus-sampling. Updated July 2015. Accessed March 14, 2016.
Routine prenatal care. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114252/Routine-prenatal-care. Updated June 22, 2016. Accessed October 7, 2016.
The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, Invasive Prenatal Testing for Aneuploidy, Practice Bulletin No. 88, December 2007; Reaffirmed 2014.
Zolator AJ, et al. Update on prenatal care. Am Fam Physician. 2014 Feb1;89 (3): 199-208.
Last reviewed March 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Beverly Siegal, MD, FACOG Last Updated: 3/28/2018