Gastritis is a condition in which the lining of the stomach becomes inflamed, leading to discomfort. If the inflammation is prolonged, either atrophic gastritis (a condition in which the glands of the stomach lining disappear) or an ulcer may develop. Underlying causes of gastritis include infection with the organism Helicobacter pylori; excessive stomach acid secretion; autoimmune processes (conditions in which the body attacks itself); and damage to the stomach lining caused by alcohol, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), corticosteroids, or severe stress.
Gastritis typically causes pain in the upper abdomen (just below the sternum), but it may also occur without pain. A burning sensation higher up in the chest (heartburn) generally indicates esophageal reflux. Stomach distress may also occur without inflammation of the stomach wall; in that case, it is called dyspepsia.
Conventional treatment for gastritis includes antibiotics to eliminate H. pylori; reducing stomach acidity with medications in the antacid, H2 blocker, or proton pump inhibitor families; and possibly using medications to protect the stomach lining. In addition, it is important to reduce alcohol consumption and change (or, if possible, stop taking) medications that damage the stomach. Vitamin B12 supplementation may be necessary in some cases of atrophic gastritis.
Newer anti-inflammatory drugs in the COX-2 inhibitor family, such as Celebrex ( celecoxib) and Vioxx ( rofecoxib), were designed to cause less harm to the stomach than the older drugs in that category (such as aspirin and ibuprofen). However, current evidence remains mixed on how much better these drugs really are compared to the old ones. More sophisticated forms of inhibitors that are currently moving toward the market may better fulfill the promise of these medications.
No herbs or supplements (other than alkaline substances with direct antacid properties, such as calcium carbonate or hydrotalcite) have been proven effective for gastritis. The treatments mentioned below have merely shown some promise in preliminary studies.
As discussed above, H. pylori is thought to contribute to many cases of gastritis. A number of treatments have been evaluated to see whether they inhibit H. pylori ’s growth. For example, evidence suggests that various probiotics (friendly bacteria) in the Lactobacillus family can inhibit the growth of H. pylori.1-4 While this effect does not appear to be strong enough for probiotic treatment to eradicate H. pylori on its own, preliminary studies (one of which was double-blind5 ) suggest that probiotics may help standard antibiotic therapy work better, improving the rate of eradication and reducing side effects.6-11
Highly preliminary studies suggest that various bioflavonoids can inhibit the growth of H. pylori as well.12 All fruits and vegetables provide bioflavonoids, but these substances can also be taken as supplements.
The herb cranberry is thought to help prevent bladder infections by preventing adhesion of bacteria to the bladder. Preliminary evidence suggests that it might also help prevent the adhesion of H. pylori to the stomach wall.17 Theoretically, this could help treat gastritis, but as yet there is no direct evidence regarding this potential benefit.
Cayenne does not appear to be helpful against H. pylori.15 However, some evidence suggests that cayenne can protect the stomach against damage caused by anti-inflammatory drugs.18-20 Other natural supplements that have shown promise for protecting against the side effects of these drugs include the amino acid cysteine,21 a special form of licorice known as deglycyrrhizinated licorice (DGL),22,23 and the breast milk constituent known as colostrum.24,25
A collection of substances extracted from beeswax has been studied as a treatment for preventing and treating ulcers of various kinds, with promising results.26 Known as D-002, this product is chemically related to policosanol; however, policosanol itself is not thought to have this effect. (To make matters more confusing, a similar beeswax extract is sold in the US as policosanol.)
Other substances have also been suggested as aids to stomach health, but as yet there is little to no scientific evidence that they are effective for gastritis. These include the following:
Many naturopathic physicians believe that the supplement betaine hydrochloride can aid gastritis by increasing stomach acid. This sounds paradoxical, since conventional treatment for this condition involves reducing stomach acid. However, according to one theory, lack of stomach acid leads to incomplete digestion of proteins, and these proteins cause allergic reactions and other responses that lead to an increase in ulcer pain. Again, scientific evidence is lacking.
Note: Symptoms of gastritis are similar to those of nonspecific dyspepsia (stomach pain with no known cause). If you suffer from stomach discomfort but your doctor does not think you have gastritis, ulcer disease, esophageal reflux, or any other specific illness, you might benefit from the natural treatments discussed in the dyspepsia article.
For a discussion of homeopathic approaches to gastritis, see the Homeopathy database.
In addition, various supplements may interact with drugs used to treat gastritis. For more information, see the specific drug article in the Drug Interactions section of this database.
1. Aiba Y, Suzuki N, Kabir AM, et al. Lactic acid-mediated suppression of Helicobacter pylori by the oral administration of Lactobacillus salivarius as a probiotic in a gnotobiotic murine model. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93:2097-2101.
2. Sakamoto I, Igarashi M, Kimura K, et al. Suppressive effect of Lactobacillus gasseri OLL 2716 (LG21) on Helicobacter pylori infection in humans. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2001;47:709-710.
3. Felley CP, Corthesy-Theulaz I, Rivero JL, et al. Favourable effect of an acidified milk (LC-1) on Helicobacter pylori gastritis in man. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2001;13:25-29.
4. Michetti P, Dorta G, Wiesel PH, et al. Effect of whey-based culture supernatant of Lactobacillus acidophilus (johnsonii) La1 on Helicobacter pylori infection in humans. Digestion. 1999;60:203-209.
5. Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Covino M, et al. Effect of different probiotic preparations on anti- helicobacter pylori therapy-related side effects: a parallel group, triple blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:2744-2749.
6. Aiba Y, Suzuki N, Kabir AM, et al. Lactic acid-mediated suppression of Helicobacter pylori by the oral administration of Lactobacillus salivarius as a probiotic in a gnotobiotic murine model. Am J Gastroenterol. 1998;93:2097-2101.
7. Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, Ojetti V, et al. Effect of Lactobacillus GG supplementation on antibiotic-associated gastrointestinal side effects during Helicobacter pylori eradication therapy: a pilot study. Digestion. 2001;63:1-7.
8. Canducci F, Armuzzi A, Cremonini F, et al. A lyophilized and inactivated culture of Lactobacillus acidophilus increases Helicobacter pylori eradication rates. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2000;14:1625-1629.
9. De Francesco V, Stoppino V, Sgarro C, et al. Lactobacillus acidophilus administration added to omeprazole/amoxycillin-based double therapy in Helicobacter pylori eradication. Dig Liver Dis. 2000;32:746-747.
10. Wendakoon CN, Thomson AB, Ozimek L. Lack of therapeutic effect of a specially designed yogurt for the eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection. Digestion. 2002;65:16-20.
11. Cremonini F, Di Caro S, Covino M, et al. Effect of different probiotic preparations on anti- helicobacter pylori therapy-related side effects: a parallel group, triple blind, placebo-controlled study. Am J Gastroenterol. 2002;97:2744-2749.
12. Beil W, Birkholz C, Sewing KF. Effects of flavonoids on parietal cell acid secretion, gastric mucosal prostaglandin production and Helicobacter pylori growth. Arzneimittelforschung. 1995;45:697-700.
13. Jarosz M, Dzieniszewski J, Dabrowska-Ufniarz E, et al. Effects of high dose vitamin C treatment on Helicobacter pylori infection and total vitamin C concentration in gastric juice. Eur J Cancer Prev. 1998;7:449-454.
14. Graham DY, Anderson SY, Lang T. Garlic or jalapeno peppers for treatment of Helicobacter pylori infection. Am J Gastroenterol. 1999;94:1200-1202.
15. Aydin A, Ersoz G, Tekesin O, et al. Garlic oil and Helicobacter pylori infection [letter]. Am J Gastroenterol. 2000;95:563-564.
16. Meier R, Wettstein A, Drewe J, et al. Fish oil (Eicosapen) is less effective than metronidazole, in combination with pantoprazole and clarithromycin, for Helicobacter pylori eradication. Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 2001;15:851-855.
17. Burger O, Ofek I, Tabak M, et al. A high molecular mass constituent of cranberry juice inhibits helicobacter pylori adhesion to human gastric mucus. FEMS Immunol Med Microbiol. 2000;29:295-301.
18. Abdel Salam OME, Moszik G, Szolcsanyi J. Studies on the effect of intragastric capsaicin on gastric ulcer and on the prostacyclin-induced cytoprotection in rats. Pharmacol Res. 1995;32:209-215.
19. Holzer P, Pabst MA, Lippe IT. Intragastric capsaicin protects against aspirin-induced lesion formation and bleeding in the rat gastric mucosa. Gastroenterology. 1989;96:1425-1433.
20. Yeoh KG, Kang JY, Yap I, et al. Chili protects against aspirin-induced gastroduodenal mucosal injury in humans. Dig Dis Sci. 1995;40:580-583.
21. Salim AS. Sulfhydryl-containing agents in the treatment of gastric bleeding induced by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Can J Surg. 1993;36:53-58.
22. Kassir ZA. Endoscopic controlled trial of four drug regimens in the treatment of chronic duodenal ulceration. Ir Med J. 1985;78:153-156.
23. Morgan AG, Pacsoo C, McAdam WA. Maintenance therapy: a two-year comparison between Caved-S and cimetidine treatment in the prevention of symptomatic gastric ulcer recurrence. Gut. 1985;26:599-602.
24. Playford RJ, Floyd DN, Macdonald CE, et al. Bovine colostrum is a health food supplement which prevents NSAID induced gut damage. Gut. 1999;44:653-658.
25. Macdonald CE, Calnan DP, Podas T, et al. Clinical trial of colostrum for protection against NSAID induced enteropathy [abstract]. Gastroenterology. 1998;114:G0856.
26. Mas R. D-002. Drugs Future. 2001;26:731-744.
27. Brune K, Bickel D, Peskar BA. Gastro-protective effects by extracts of Petasites hybridus: the role of inhibition of peptido-leukotriene synthesis. Planta Medica. 1993;59:494-496.
28. Bickel D, Roder T, Bestmann J, et al. Identification and characterization of inhibitors of peptido-leukotriene-synthesis from Petasites hybridus.Planta Medica. 1994;60:318-322.
Last reviewed December 2015 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
Last Updated: 12/15/2015
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