The substances collagen and elastin give skin its firmness and elasticity. With age, though, the collagen and elastin content of the skin gradually decreases. As a result, the skin becomes looser, weaker, less elastic, and drier. In addition, the fat pads under the skin begin to disappear. Wrinkles form, and the skin begins to sag.
This gradual loss of structure has several causes: genetic programming (a built-in “clock” that causes aging), cumulative sun damage (photoaging), and direct chemical effects from cigarette smoking and/or abrasive chemicals. Sun damage additionally causes fine wrinkles that disappear when stretching the skin, surface roughness, mottled pigmentation, "liver" spots, and skin cancer.
In people who already have signs of aging skin and wish to reverse it, a number of treatments are available.
The drug tretinoin (retinoic acid, or Retin-A), a substance related to vitamin A, has been shown effective for reversing the fine wrinkles, splotchy pigmentation, and rough skin of sun damage.
The hormone estrogen is thought to help restore normal skin tone in menopausal women, but the evidence for this widely held belief remains weak.
More aggressive treatments for aging skin include injections of botulin toxin, dermabrasion, chemical peels, soft tissue augmentation, laser resurfacing, and GORE-TEX® threads. For detailed information on the relative merits and demerits of these methods, consult a dermatologist or plastic surgeon.
Two classes of natural treatments have shown promise in the treatment of aging skin: alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) and antioxidants. However, the evidence that they work remains incomplete, and AHAs can cause significant side effects.
Alpha-hydroxy acids, such as glycolic acid and lactic acid, are substances derived from fruit and dairy products. These are milder relatives of the substances used by dermatologists in chemical peels, which are designed to remove damaged layers of the skin. In recent years, cosmetic manufacturers have begun to add AHAs to numerous skin-care products.
Meaningful evidence in support of AHAs comes from one double-blind, placebo-controlled study reported in 1996.1 This 22-week study enrolled 74 women with sun-damaged skin. Participants received either 8% glycolic acid, 8% L-lactic acid, or placebo cream, and applied it to the face and forearm. Although participants showed improvements in each of the three groups, superior results were achieved with each of the AHA creams than with the placebo cream.
Another double-blind study compared estrogen cream, glycolic acid cream, and their combination against placebo.26 Both estrogen and glycolic acid improved skin aging.
AHAs are not always harmless. Possible side effects include burning, blistering, severe redness, swelling (especially in the area of the eyes), bleeding, rash, and increased sensitivity to the sun.2 There are also concerns that AHAs may increase risk of skin cancer. For all these reasons, the FDA is currently investigating the use of AHAs in cosmetic products to determine whether they should be reclassified as drugs.
The ultraviolet light from the sun creates free radicals, naturally occurring substances that can harm many tissues of the body, including the skin. Antioxidants are substances that neutralize free radicals. On this basis, various antioxidants have been investigated for their potential usefulness in treating or preventing photoaging. (Note, however, the surprising results described at the end of this subsection.)
A small, 3-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled study found benefit with a cream containing 5% alpha-lipoic acid.27 Use of this antioxidant substance improved several measures of aging skin as compared to placebo, especially skin roughness. Benefits have also been seen in preliminary studies with a cream containing vitamin C.3,4
Oligomeric proanthocyanidin complexes (OPCs) made from grape seed or pine bark are widely marketed for the treatment of aging skin. These substances, closely related to bioflavonoids, have antioxidant properties and might also protect and strengthen collagen and elastin.5-10 These effects provide theoretical reasons to believe that OPCs might be helpful for the treatment of aging skin. However, despite widespread marketing, no properly designed studies have been reported to indicate that OPCs really provide any benefit.
In an 8-week double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 40 women who already had sun-damaged skin, combined use of oral green tea and a topical green tea cream failed to prove more effective than placebo in improving the condition of sun-damaged skin.29 Some possible benefits were seen in microscopic evaluation of skin condition.
Antioxidant substances have also been studied as aids to preventing sun damage.
One small, double-blind study found that 2 g of vitamin C and 1,000 IU of vitamin E taken orally for 8 days resulted in a modest decrease of "sunburn" induced by ultraviolet light.15 In addition, a 50-day, placebo-controlled study of 40 people found that higher doses of these vitamins provided a sun protection factor of about 2.16 (Compare this to the sun protection factor of 15 or higher in many sunscreens.) It appears that these vitamins must be taken together for best effect; when used alone they do not appear to work.16,17,40
Oral use of beta-carotene, lycopene, and other carotenoids has shown preventive effects in some but not all studies.25,30-31 Benefits have also been seen with mixtures of various antioxidants taken together (vitamin E, zeoxanthin, lutein, beta-carotene, and others).32-33
Oral vitamin A has shown some promise for preventing skin cancer in people at risk for it, but the doses used in studies were quite high, considerably above current recommendations for the maximum safe dose.28 ( Note: Do not use vitamin A along with the drug tretinoin. See Safety Issues.)
Topical vitamin A may be helpful for treatment of aging skin. One double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that a 0.4% vitamin A lotion applied three times a week significantly reduced the number of “fine” wrinkles in seniors.42 Benefits were also seen in terms of some biochemical measures of skin health.
Because these antioxidants work in an entirely different manner from standard sunscreen, it appears reasonable to believe that they might offer a synergistic effect if taken with sunscreen. However, this hypothesis has not been studied.
Other substances with antioxidant actions that have shown some promise for treating or preventing aging skin include cocoa,39 Vitis vinifera extract,43 milk thistle,21 and zinc.21 However, the supporting evidence that use of these substances (taken either orally or topically) offers any benefit for the skin remains far too preliminary to be relied upon at all.
Note: Any discussion of the potential benefits of antioxidants for preventing cancer must include the startling finding of a large study that tested the effect of mixed antioxidants. This trial, enrolling 7,876 women and 5,141 men, evaluated the potential benefits of a combination of vitamin C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, selenium, and zinc for preventing cancer. According to results published in 2007, no benefits were seen among male participants, but among women, skin cancer rates actually appeared to increase.44 The cause of these findings remains unclear.
A study published in 2007 tested a purified soy isoflavone product (technically, isoflavone aglycones) for treatment of aging skin.41 In this double-blind trial, 26 Japanese women in their late 30s and early 40s were either given placebo or 40 mg daily of soy isoflavone aglycones for 12 weeks. Researchers monitored two types of wrinkles near the eye: “fine” wrinkles and “linear” wrinkles. The results indicated that use of the soy product significantly reduced “fine” wrinkles as compared to placebo. (Effects on “linear” wrinkles were not significant.) As a secondary measure, researchers also analyzed skin elasticity, and found an improvement in the women given the isoflavones as compared to those given placebo.
An unusual soy extract containing soybean trypsin inhibitor (STI) and Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (BBI) has also shown promise for aging skin.45 Sixty-five women with moderate skin damage from the sun either received soybean extract or placebo cream for 12 weeks. Compared to the women in the placebo group, treated women showed an improvement in mottled pigmentation, blotchiness, dullness, fine lines, as well as an overall enhancement of texture, skin tone, and appearance.
The substance glucosamine is widely used for osteoarthritis in part because it seems to help collagen regenerate. For this reason, it has been advocated as a treatment for aging skin. However, the only evidence that it works comes from one poorly designed study. In this single-blind trial, 72 women with symptoms of aging skin were divided into two unequal groups: a small group that received no treatment, and a much larger one that received a proprietary mixture of glucosamine, amino acids, and minerals.22 The results indicated greater improvement in the treated group as compared to the untreated group. However, because this was not a double-blind, placebo-controlled study, the results cannot be taken as reliable.
The mineral silicon has also been proposed as a treatment for aging skin. In the one potentially meaningful published study, 50 women with sun-damaged skin were given either 10 mg silicon daily (as orthosilicic acid) or placebo for 20 weeks.35 Measurements of skin roughness and elasticity showed improvement in the silicon group as compared to the placebo group. However, this study, performed by the manufacturer of a silicon product, leaves much to be desired in design and reporting.
A proprietary dietary supplement containing soy, fish protein polysaccharides, white tea extract, and many other ingredients has also shown promise, according to a study performed by the manufacturer.37
In a preliminary, double-blind blind study, coriander oil applied topically was more effective than a placebo cream at reducing redness due to UVB exposure.46 This effect may or may not translate into long-term benefit for aging sun-damaged skin.
Numerous herbs and other natural products have been advocated for the treatment of aging skin, including aloe, arnica, calendula, chamomile, dead sea minerals, gotu kola, PABA, thuja, and vitamin A. Other products claim to contain biological substances called “growth factors”—with names such as IGF-1, IGF-2, TGF-A, TGF-B, EGF, and FGF—and go on to claim that these growth factors improve skin condition. Still others supposedly raise levels of human growth hormone in the body and, therefore, help produce youthful skin. However, there is no meaningful evidence that any of these treatments actually work.
So-called “ acupuncture face lifts” are widely available for treating facial wrinkles. They involve a series of treatments in which fine needles are inserted into the face. However, there is no evidence to indicate this method produces any benefit.
The herb St. John’s wort contains a substance, hypericin, that increases the skin’s sensitivity to the sun.23,24 For this reason, it is possible that use of St. John’s wort could accelerate sun damage of skin.
People using the drug tretinoin (Retin-A) should not take high doses of vitamin A, as each might increase the toxicity of the other.
1. Stiller MJ, Bartolone J, Stern R, et al. Topical 8% glycolic acid and 8% L-lactic acid creams for the treatment of photodamaged skin. A double-blind vehicle-controlled clinical trial. Arch Dermatol. 1996;132:631-636.
2. US Food and Drug Administration. Alpha hydroxy acids for skin care: smooth sailing or rough seas? FDA Consumer March-April 1998. Last Revised: May 1999. Available at: http://vm.cfsan.fda.gov/~dms/fdacaha.html. Accessed March 21, 2003.
3. Traikovich SS. Use of topical ascorbic acid and its effects on photodamaged skin topography. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 1999;125:1091-1098.
4. Humbert PG, Haftek M, Creidi P, et al. Topical ascorbic acid on photoaged skin. Clinical, topographical and ultrastructural evaluation: double-blind study vs. placebo. Exp Dermatol. 2003;12:237-244.
5. Maffei Facino R, Carini M, Aldini G, et al. Free radical scavenging action and anti-enzyme activities of procyanidines from Vitis vinifera. A mechanism for their capillary protective action. Arzneimittelforschung. 1994;44:592-601.
6. Kuttan R, Donnelly PV, Di Ferrante N. Collagen treated with (+)-catechin becomes resistant to the action of mammalian collagenase. Experientia. 1981;37:221-223.
7. Masquelier J. Procyanidolic oligomers. Parfums Cosmetiques Aromes. 1990;95:89-97.
8. Masquelier J, Dumon MC, Dumas J. Stabilization of collagen by procyanidolic oligomers [in French; English abstract]. Acta Ther. 1981;7:101-105.
9. Schwitters B, Masquelier J. OPC in Practice: Bioflavanols and their Applications. Rome, Italy: Alfa Omega; 1993.
10. Tixier JM, Godeau G, Robert AM, et al. Evidence by in vivo and in vitro studies that binding of pycnogenols to elastin affects its rate of degradation by elastases. Biochem Pharmacol. 1984;33:3933-3939.
11. Darr D, Combs S, Dunston S, et al. Topical vitamin C protects porcine skin from ultraviolet radiation-induced damage. Br J Dermatol. 1992;127:247-253.
12. Darr D, Dunston S, Faust H, et al. Effectiveness of antioxidants (vitamin C and E) with and without sunscreens as topical photoprotectants. Acta Derm Venereol. 1996;76:264-268.
13. Trevithick JR, Shum DT, Redae S, et al. Reduction of sunburn damage to skin by topical application of vitamin E acetate following exposure to ultraviolet B radiation: effect of delaying application or of reducing concentration of vitamin E acetate applied. Scanning Microsc. 1993;7:1269-1281.
14. Trevithick JR, Xiong H, Lee S, et al. Topical tocopherol acetate reduces post-UVB, sunburn-associated erythema, edema, and skin sensitivity in hairless mice. Arch Biochem Biophys. 1992;296:575-582.
15. Eberlein-Konig B, Placzek M, Przybilla B. Protective effect against sunburn of combined systemic ascorbic acid (vitamin C) and d-alpha-tocopherol (vitamin E). J Am Acad Dermatol. 1998;38:45-48.
16. Fuchs J, Kern H. Modulation of UV-light-induced skin inflammation by D-alpha-tocopherol and L-ascorbic acid: a clinical study using solar simulated radiation. Free Radic Biol Med. 1998;25:1006-1012.
17. Werninghaus K, Meydani M, Bhawan J, et al. Evaluation of the photoprotective effect of oral vitamin E supplementation. Arch Dermatol. 1994;130:1257-1261.
18. Katiyar SK, Matsui MS, Elmets CA, et al. Polyphenolic antioxidant (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate from green tea reduces UVB-induced inflammatory responses and infiltration of leukocytes in human skin. Photochem Photobiol. 1999;69:148-153.
19. Katiyar SK, Elmets CA, Agarwal R, et al. Protection against ultraviolet-B radiation-induced local and systemic suppression of contact hypersensitivity and edema responses in C3H/HeN mice by green tea polyphenols. Photochem Photobiol. 1995;62:855-861.
20. Elmets CA, Singh D, Tubesing K, et al. Cutaneous photoprotection from ultraviolet injury by green tea polyphenols. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2001;44:425-432.
21. Pinnell SR. Cutaneous photodamage, oxidative stress, and topical antioxidant protection. J Am Acad Dermatol. 2003;48:1-19.
22. Murad H, Tabibian MP. The effect of an oral supplement containing glucosamine, amino acids, minerals, and antioxidants on cutaneous aging: a preliminary study. J Dermatolog Treat. 2001;12:47-51.
23. Brockmoller J, Reum T, Bauer S, et al. Hypericin and pseudohypericin: pharmacokinetics and effects on photosensitivity in humans. Pharmacopsychiatry. 1997;30(Suppl 2):94-101.
24. Lane-Brown MM. Photosensitivity associated with herbal preparations of St John's wort ( Hypericumperforatum) [letter]. Med J Aust. 2000;172:302.
25. Darlington S, Williams G, Neale R, et al. A randomized controlled trial to assess sunscreen application and beta carotene supplementation in the prevention of solar keratoses. Arch Dermatol. 2003;139:451-455.
26. Fuchs KO, Solis O, Tapawan R, et al. The effects of an estrogen and glycolic acid cream on the facial skin of postmenopausal women: a randomized histologic study. Cutis. 2003;71:481-488.
27. Beitner H. Randomized, placebo-controlled, double blind study on the clinical efficacy of a cream containing 5% alpha-lipoic acid related to photoageing of facial skin. Br J Dermatol. 2003;149:841-849.
28. Moon TE, Levine N, Cartmel B, et al. Effect of retinol in preventing squamous cell skin cancer in moderate-risk subjects: a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial. Southwest Skin Cancer Prevention Study Group. CancerEpidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 1997;6:949-956.
29. Chiu AE, Chan JL, Kern DG, et al. Double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial of green tea extracts in the clinical and histologic appearance of photoaging skin. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31:855-860; discussion 860.
30. Stahl W, Heinrich U, Wiseman S, et al. Dietary tomato paste protects against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans. J Nutrit. 2001;131:1449-1451.
31. Heinrich U, Gartner C, Wiebusch M, et al. Supplementation with beta-carotene or a similar amount of mixed carotenoids protects humans from UV-induced erythema. J Nutrit. 2003;133:98-101.
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33. Stahl W, Heinrich U, Jungmann H, et al. Carotenoids and carotenoids plus vitamin E protect against ultraviolet light-induced erythema in humans. Am J Clin Nutrit. 2000;71:795-798.
34. Bissett DL, Oblong JE, Berge CA, et al. Niacinamide: A B vitamin that improves aging facial skin appearance. Dermatol Surg. 2005;31:860-865; discussion 865.
35. Barel A, Calomme M, Timchenko A, et al. Effect of oral intake of choline-stabilized orthosilicic acid on skin, nails and hair in women with photodamaged skin. Arch Dermatol Res. 2005 Oct 5. [Epub ahead of print]
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39. Heinrich U, Neukam K, Tronnier H, et al. Long-term ingestion of high flavanol cocoa provides photoprotection against UV-induced erythema and improves skin condition in women. J Nutr. 2006;136:1565-1569.
40. Palombo P, Fabrizi G, Ruocco V, et al. Beneficial long-term effects of combined oral/topical antioxidant treatment with the carotenoids lutein and zeaxanthin on human skin: a double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Skin Pharmacol Physiol. 2007;20:199-210.
41. Izumi T, Saito M, Obata A, et al. Oral intake of soy isoflavone aglycone improves the aged skin of adult women. J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo). 2007;53:57-62.
42. Kafi R, Kwak HS, Schumacher WE, et al. Improvement of naturally aged skin with vitamin a (retinol). Arch Dermatol. 2007;143:606-612.
43. Cornacchione S, Sadick NS, Neveu M, et al. In vivo skin antioxidant effect of a new combination based on a specific Vitis vinifera shoot extract and a biotechnological extract. J Drugs Dermatol. 2007;6:s8-13.
44. Hercberg S, Ezzedine K, Guinot C, et al. Antioxidant supplementation increases the risk of skin cancers in women but not in men. J Nutr. 2007;137:2098-2105.
45. Wallo W, Nebus J, Leyden JJ. Efficacy of a soy moisturizer in photoaging: a double-blind, vehicle-controlled, 12-week study. J Drugs Dermatol. 2007;6:917-922.
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Last Updated: 12/15/2015
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