Eleutherococcus senticosus is only distantly related to the true ginseng species ( Panax ginseng and P. quinquefolius) and possesses entirely different, unrelated chemical constituents. However, it is popularly called Russian or Siberian ginseng. The origin of this misnomer lies in the work of a Soviet scientist, I.I. Brekhman, who believed that eleutherococcus has the same properties as ginseng, and popularized it as a less-expensive alternative herb.
According to Brekhman, eleutherococcus and ginseng are both adaptogens. This term refers to a hypothetical treatment defined as follows: An adaptogen should help the body adapt to stresses of various kinds, whether heat, cold, exertion, trauma, sleep deprivation, toxic exposure, radiation, infection, or psychological stress. Furthermore, an adaptogen should cause no side effects, be effective in treating a wide variety of illnesses, and help return an organism toward balance no matter what may have gone wrong.
Perhaps the only indisputable example of an adaptogen is a healthful lifestyle. By eating right, exercising regularly, and generally living a life of balance and moderation, you will increase your physical fitness and ability to resist illnesses of all types. Brekhman felt certain that both eleutherococcus and ginseng produced similarly universal benefits. However, there is little to no meaningful evidence supporting this theory.
Herbs sold under the name ciwuja are most likely Eleutherococcus, as well.
If Brekhman is right, ginseng (whether Eleutherococcus or Panax) should be the right treatment for most of us. Modern life is tremendously stressful, and if an herb could help us withstand stress, it would be a useful herb indeed. Eleutherococcus is widely used for this purpose in Russia and Eastern Europe, and it is popular elsewhere as well. However, there is little meaningful evidence to support this theory. Existing evidence on the supposed adaptogenic properties falls far beneath current scientific standards.1
Better quality studies have evaluated the potential usefulness of Eleutherococcus for specific conditions. Most, however, have failed to find benefit.
In the one unquestionably positive study, a 6-month, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 93 men and women with recurrent herpes infections, treatment with eleutherococcus (2 g daily) reduced the frequency of outbreaks by approximately 50%.2
Although Eleutherococcus is widely used as a sports supplement, evidence from studies is largely negative. For example, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 20 athletes over an 8-week period found no improvement in physical performance.3 In addition, a small double-blind, crossover trial found Eleutherococcus ineffective for improving performance in endurance exercise (ie, prolonged cycling).4 Finally, in a small double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of endurance athletes, use of Eleutherococcus actually increased physiological signs of stress during intensive training.5
Several double-blind studies enrolling a total of about 500 people have evaluated a proprietary combination therapy containing extracts of Eleutherococcus and the herb andrographis for the treatment of upper respiratory infections, and found benefit.7-9 In general, these studies reported that use of the combination therapy may decrease both severity and duration of upper respiratory infections. However, it is not clear whether the presence of the Eleutherococcus adds any benefit beyond that of the andrographis constituent, which taken alone has shown efficacy in clinical trials. For more information, see the Andrographis article.
The typical recommended daily dosage of eleutherococcus is 2 g to 3 g whole herb or 300 mg to 400 mg of extract daily.
According to studies performed primarily in the former Soviet Union, Eleutherococcus appears to present a low order of toxicity in both the short- and long-term. Human trials have not resulted in any significant side effects.1,10 Safety in pregnant or nursing women, young children, or people with severe liver or kidney disease is not known.
One report suggests that Eleutherococcus may alter the results of a test for the medication digoxin.11 However, it is not clear whether it was the Eleutherococcus or a contaminant (eg, digoxin mixed with the herb) that caused these problems.
If you are taking:
1. Farnsworth NR, Kinghorn AD, Soejarto DD, et al. Siberian ginseng ( Eleutherococcus senticosus): current status as an adaptogen. Econ Med Plant Res. 1985;1:156-215.
2. Williams M. Immuno-protection against herpes simplex type II infection by Eleutherococcus root extract. Int J Alt Complement Med. 1995;13:9-12.
3. Dowling EA, Redondo DR, Branch JD, et al. Effect of Eleutherococcus senticosus on submaximal and maximal exercise performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:482-489.
4. Eschbach LF, Webster MJ, Boyd JC, et al. The effect of Siberian ginseng ( Eleutherococcus senticosus) on substrate utilization and performance. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. 2000;10:444-451.
5. Gaffney BT, Hugel HM, Rich PA. The effects of Eleutherococcus senticosus and Panax ginseng on steroidal hormone indices of stress and lymphocyte subset numbers in endurance athletes. Life Sci. 2001;70:431-442.
6. Hartz AJ, Bentler S, Noyes R, et al. Randomized controlled trial of Siberian ginseng for chronic fatigue. Psychol Med. 2004;34:51-61.
7. Melchior J, Spasov AA, Ostrovskij OV, et al. Double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot and phase III study of activity of standardized Andrographis paniculata Herba Nees extract fixed combination (Kan jang) in the treatment of uncomplicated upper-respiratory tract infection. Phytomedicine. 2000;7:341-350.
8. Spasov AA, Ostrovskij OV, Chernikov MV, et al. Comparative controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination, Kan Jang and an Echinacea preparation as adjuvant, in the treatment of uncomplicated respiratory disease in children. Phytother Res. 2004;18:47-53.
9. Gabrielian ES, Shukarian AK, Goukasova GI, et al. A double blind, placebo-controlled study of Andrographis paniculata fixed combination Kan Jang in the treatment of acute upper respiratory tract infections including sinusitis. Phytomedicine. 2002;9:589-597.
10. Newall CA, Anderson LA, Phillipson JD. Herbal Medicines: A Guide for Health-Care Professionals. London, England: The Pharmaceutical Press; 1996: 143.
11. McRae S. Elevated serum digoxin levels in a patient taking digoxin and Siberian ginseng. CMAJ. 1996;155:293-295.
Last reviewed December 2015 by EBSCO CAM Review Board
Last Updated: 12/15/2015
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