Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a mental health disorder. People with BPD may often have dramatic, emotional, erratic, and attention-seeking moods. This behavior is severe enough to cause problems with family and work life, long-term planning, and sense of self.
The causes of BPD are not fully understood. People who develop BPD may have genes that make them more likely to develop mental illness. Certain experiences and types of stress may then further increase their chance of developing BPD. Many BPD sufferers are found to have had childhood abuse, neglect, separation, sexual abuse, violence, or brain injury.
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BPD is more common in females. The following factors increase your chances of developing BPD:
The symptoms of BPD vary. People with BPD tend to be extremely sensitive to rejection. They may react with anger and be upset at even mild separation from friends or family. Symptoms often become more severe when people with BPD feel isolated and lonely or during times of stress.
Traits that are common to people with BPD include:
BPD can affect anyone. It is usually diagnosed in adolescents and young adults.
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. If BPD is suspected, you may be referred to a psychiatrist who specializes in personality disorders.
A diagnosis of BPD may be made if a person has a history of the symptoms listed above. In addition, BPD patients almost always have other mental health problems such as:
Treatment options have improved as BPD is better understood. Many BPD sufferers are helped by psychotherapy and medications.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include the following:
Individual, group, and family therapy form the basis of BPD treatment. Individual psychotherapy usually consists of 2-3 sessions a week for a period of years. Group therapy may focus on the same goals but take place in a group of fellow participants. The goal of therapy is to help the person with BPD:
Psychotherapy may use a combination of different therapies. Common therapy approaches include:
Family therapy may help family members deal with the effects of BPD. It can also provide additional support for the person with BPD.
Medication may be prescribed and adjusted based on your symptoms. Medication options may include:
Nothing has been shown to prevent BPD.
National Association for Borderline Personality Disorder
Mental Health America
Borderline Personality Disorder
Canadian Psychological Association
Blum N, St. John D, Pfohl B, et al. Systems Training for Emotional Predictability and Problem Solving (STEPPS) for outpatients with borderline personality disorder: a randomized controlled trial and 1-year follow-up. Am J Psychiatry. 2008;165(4):468-478.
Borderline personality disorder. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:
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Updated June 22, 2017. Accessed February 1, 2018.
Borderline personality disorder. National Mental Health Association website. Available at: https://www.nimh.nih.gov/health/topics/borderline-personality-disorder/index.shtml. Updated December 2017. Accessed February 1, 2018.
Borderline personality disorder (BPD). Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at:
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Updated . Accessed February 1, 2018.
Types of therapy. Good Therapy website. Available at: https://www.goodtherapy.org/learn-about-therapy/types. Accessed February 1, 2018.
Last reviewed November 2018 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Adrian Preda, MD
Last Updated: 2/1/2018