Diphtheria is an infection caused by bacteria that releases toxins in the body. It can be life-threatening. The infection and toxins causes a thick coating in your nose and throat. This coating can make it hard to breath. Diphtheria can be easily spread between people.
Tetanus (also known as lockjaw) is caused by bacteria that enter through broken skin. The bacteria release a toxin in the body. It affects the nerves leading to severe muscle spasms. If it affects the muscles you need to breathe, it can be fatal.
Pertussis is also known as whooping cough. It is caused by bacteria that easily spread from person to person. It cause swelling in the airways. This causes a distinct, severe cough and breathing problems.
DTaP is a vaccine to protect against these 3 infections.
The vaccine has inactive forms of these bacteria. Inactive forms can not cause an infection. Instead, they stimulate the body to make antitoxins and antibodies to fight future infections.
DTaP is given to young children. It is delivered over a series of 5 shots. The vaccine is given at ages:
Other, similar vaccines that are approved for older children and adults include:
Common side effects of the vaccine include:
Less common, but more serious side effects include:
Acetaminophen is sometimes given for any pain and fever after a vaccination. In infants, the medication may weaken the vaccine's effectiveness. Talk with the doctor about whether you should give acetaminophen to your child.
Children should not receive the DTap vaccine if they experienced:
If your child is sick at the time of the vaccination, the doctor may recommend waiting.
Vaccination is the best way to prevent these infections. Other strategies include:
Suspected cases of these infections need to be reported to the public health department. If you believe you have been exposed, make sure your vaccinations are up-to-date. Your doctor may recommend preventative antibiotics after close contact with someone who is infected.
Diphtheria. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114762/Diphtheria . Updated November 30, 2017. Accessed December 6, 2017.
Diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis (DTaP) VIS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/dtap.html. Updated October 18, 2016. Accessed December 6, 2017.
DTaP vaccine: What you need to know (VIS). Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics website. Available at https://www.healthychildren.org/English/safety-prevention/immunizations/Pages/Diphtheria-Tetanus-Pertussis-Vaccines-What-You-Need-to-Know.aspx. Updated November 21, 2015. Accessed December 6, 2017.
Immunization schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html. Updated February 6, 2017. Accessed December 6, 2017.
Pertussis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114591/Pertussis . Updated September 22, 2017. Accessed December 6, 2017.
Td (tetanus, diphtheria) VIS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/td.html. Updated April 11, 2017. Accessed December 6, 2017.
Tetanus. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114650/Tetanus . Updated May 17, 2017. Accessed December 6, 2017.
Last reviewed November 2018 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
David L. Horn, MD, FACP
Last Updated: 7/16/2012