A migraine is a moderate to severe type of headache that makes it hard to focus on things like school.
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Specific genes appear to be associated with migraines. These genes tend to run in families. Many times, the exact cause is not known.
Things that are thought to trigger an attack are:
Migraines are more common in boys before puberty and girls after puberty. It is also more common in children who have other family members who have migraines.
Migraines often occur in these phases:
In the hours or days before a headache, a child may have these warning signs:
Auras are feelings that may happen before some types of migraine.
The most common aura is visual. It lasts about 15 to 30 minutes and may cause:
When an aura happens, migraine pain starts within an hour after the aura ends. Headaches often last from 2 to 72 hours and may cause:
You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done. The diagnosis is usually based on your child's symptoms.
The goal of treatment is to:
Choices may be:
Medicine is the first treatment option for migraines. The type of medicine used depends on how severe the headaches are.
Options may be:
Therapy may be used with or without medicine to ease stress and improve how a child copes with pain. It may result in fewer headaches that do not last as long. Options are:
Tracking and avoiding migraine triggers may help prevent headaches in some children. Some triggers may be certain foods, stress, and changes in temperature.
Children with severe or frequent migraines may need medicine to try to prevent or decrease them, such as:
There are no current steps that can change a child’s likelihood of getting migraines.
American Headache Society
The National Migraine Association
The College of Family Physicians of Canada
Green A, Kabbouche M, et al. Managing Migraine Headaches in Children and Adolescents. Expert Rev Clin Pharmacol. 2016;9(3):477-482.
Headache in children. National Headache Foundation website. Available at:
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Accessed January 2, 2019.
Migraines. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: https://familydoctor.org/condition/migraines. Updated September 3, 2019. Accessed January 2, 2020.
Migraine in children and adolescents. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/migraine-in-children-and-adolescents. Updated March 28, 2017. Accessed September 25, 2017.
Migraine prophylaxis in children and adolescents. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T259238/Migraine-prophylaxis-in-children-and-adolescents. Updated April 23, 2019. Accessed January 2, 2020.
Migraine—treatment of status migrainosus in children and adolescents. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/management/migraine-treatment-of-status-migrainosus-in-children-and-adolescents. Updated March 6, 2017. Accessed January 2, 2020.
Migraine—treatment of acute attack in children and adolescents. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/management/migraine-treatment-of-acute-attack-in-children-and-adolescents. Updated March 6, 2017. Accessed January 2, 2020.
Last reviewed September 2019 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Kari Kassir, MD
Last Updated: 6/12/2020