Chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) is a problem with the veins. Veins bring blood back to the heart. They have valves to keep blood moving in one direction. When the valves don’t close properly, blood can leak back. This can cause a backup of blood in the veins. The legs are a common place for blood to backup. This is because veins must work against gravity.
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Damage to the valves causes problems in the veins. This can be related to inflammation or low blood flow. Damage can happen because of:
For some, the cause may remain unknown.
Having DVT makes your chances of CVI higher. Other factors include:
CVI may cause:
The doctor will ask about your symptoms and health history. You may have:
The goal of care is to maintain blood flow and prevent it from pooling in the veins. It may involve:
Your doctor may have you wear compression stockings. They squeeze veins in the legs. This helps keep the blood from pooling. You may need to keep your legs raised above your heart during rest or sleep.
Therapeutic massage of the lower legs can reduce discomfort and drain fluid buildup.
Walking and specific exercises for your legs and feet may help. Don’t sit or stand for long periods of time.
Mineral bath therapy may help to improve skin redness. Bandages or antibiotic cream can prevent skin infection. Wearing compression stockings may also promote healing.
Sclerotherapy involves injecting a caustic material into the affected veins. Scar tissue fills the veins. The blood is rerouted through veins that are working properly.
With ablation, a tiny electrode is inserted into the affected vein. Electricity scars the vein and blocks it off.
Over time, the body will resorb the vein that isn’t working (for both).
If other care methods fail, surgery may be needed. The type of surgery will depend on the cause and test results. Options include:
To help lower your chances of CVI:
National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute
Society for Vascular Surgery
Canadian Society for Vascular Surgery
Chronic venous insufficiency. Society for Vascular Surgery website. Available at: https://vascular.org/patient-resources/vascular-conditions/chronic-venous-insufficiency. Accessed July 11, 2018.
Chronic venous insufficiency and postphlebitic syndrome. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/cardiovascular-disorders/peripheral-venous-disorders/chronic-venous-insufficiency-and-postphlebitic-syndrome. Updated March 2018. Accessed July 11, 2018.
Venous insufficiency. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115785/Venous-insufficiency . Updated August 18, 2016. Accessed July 11, 2018.
2/17/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115837/Venous-ulcer : O'Meara S, Cullum N, et al. Compression for venous leg ulcers. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2009;(1):CD000265.
3/30/2015 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115785/Venous-insufficiency . dos Santos Crisóstomo RS, Costo DS, et al. Influence of manual lymphatic drainage on health-related quality of life and symptoms of chronic venous insufficiency: a randomized controlled trial. Arch Phys Med Rehabil. 2015;96(2):283-291.
Last reviewed May 2018 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Michael J. Fucci, DO, FACC
Last Updated: 7/11/2018