The spine is made of several bones called vertebra. They are lined up so the spinal cord can run through the center of the bones. Spondylolisthesis is when one of the vertebrae (usually in the lower back area) slips out of place. It moves forward compared to the vertebra below and develops slowly over time.
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Spondylolisthesis is most often caused by a stress fracture ( Spondylolysis). The fracture can make the vertebra unstable and allow it to slip forward. This type of fracture often occurs when a lot of stress and pressure is put on the back. This can occur with certain sports activities.
The condition can also be caused by spinal problems that are present at birth, like spina bifida.
Factors that may increase your chance of spondylolisthesis include:
Spondylolisthesis begins to progress at age 10-15 years. Symptoms may not appear until adulthood. In many cases of spondylolisthesis, there are no obvious symptoms. Symptoms that may be present include:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Images of the spine will be taken with:
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:
Physical therapy usually involves exercise. The exercise will focus on strengthening the abdominal and back muscles. A back brace may also be recommended.
If you are overweight, your doctor may recommend you lose weight. This will help reduce stress on the spine.
Pain medications, such as nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), may help manage pain.
To help reduce your chance of spondylolisthesis:
North American Spine Society
Ortho Info—American Academy
of Orthopaedic Surgeons
Canadian Orthopaedic Association
Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation
Spondylolysis and spondylolisthesis.Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at:
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Updated September 2016. Accessed November 27, 2017.
Spondylolisthesis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116263/Spondylolisthesis . Updated July 13, 2017. Accessed November 27, 2017.
Last reviewed November 2018 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Laura Lei-Rivera, PT, DPT, GCS
Last Updated: 12/20/2014