Vaginal prolapse is the inward and downward bulging of the vaginal walls. The severity of vaginal prolapse may be defined as:
Vaginal prolapse is caused by weakened support structures in the pelvic region. The lack of support causes the walls of the vagina to weaken, sag, and collapse.
Pelvic Floor Muscles and Organs
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Your risk of vaginal prolapse increases with age. Other factors include:
Symptoms may include:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. Vaginal prolapse that has no symptoms may be diagnosed during routine examinations. You may be referred to a gynecologist, who will do a pelvic exam.
Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. First- or second-degree prolapse without symptoms may not require treatment. Treatment options include:
Kegel exercises involve tensing the muscles around the vagina and anus, holding for several seconds, then releasing. The repetition of this exercise will help to tone pelvic muscles. You may be asked to do this up to 100 times a day.
Estrogen therapy may be advised. This may help prevent further weakness of the pelvic floor. Talk to your doctor about the risks and benefits associated with hormone replacement therapy.
A pessary may be inserted into the upper portion of the vagina. A pessary is a rubbery, doughnut-shaped device. It helps to prop up the uterus and bladder. Pessary placement is more often used in older women.
Vaginal prolapse that is severe or associated with lasting symptoms may require surgery. Surgery may involve repairing the pelvic floor structure or, in some cases, suturing the vagina.
To help reduce your chances of vaginal prolapse:
Office on Women's Health
The American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Canadian Women's Health Network
Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
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Pelvic organ prolapse. International Urogynecological Association website. Available at:
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Accessed April 17, 2018.
Uterine and vaginal prolapse. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/gynecology-and-obstetrics/pelvic-relaxation-syndromes/uterine-and-vaginal-prolapse. Updated February 2017. Accessed April 17, 2018.
Vaginal pessary. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: https://familydoctor.org/vaginal-pessary. Updated October 24, 2017. Accessed April 17, 2018.
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5/11/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114467/Pelvic-organ-prolapse : Fritel X, Varnoux N, Zins M, Breart G, Ringa V. Symptomatic pelvic organ prolapse at midlife, quality of life, and risk factors. Obstet Gynecol. 2009;113(3):609-616.
Last reviewed March 2018 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Marcie L. Sidman, MD
Last Updated: 4/17/2018