A food allergy is when the body mistakes a food as being harmful. This makes the immune system release chemicals into the blood that cause symptoms to happen.
The most common triggers of a food reaction are:
A food allergy often starts when a person is a child. It may also start or continue when a person is an adult. Things that may put you at risk are:
Symptoms may be:
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You will be asked about your symptoms and health history. A physical exam will be done.
The allergy can be confirmed with a:
You may need to see a doctor who treats allergies.
Some people may need medical care right away.
A food allergy can be managed. Options are:
The best way to manage this allergy is to avoid the allergen, foods that contain it, and foods that may have been around it. Always read food labels. Do this even if you do not think a food has the allergen in it. Most labels will state whether the factory where a food was made also works with the allergen. Always ask for the items in homemade foods to check for the allergen. Ask if the item was made with utensils that have come in contact with the allergen.
People with a mild reaction may be able to take medicine to ease symptoms. The medicine should only be used if a person is exposed to an allergen by accident. Medicines may be:
People with severe reactions may need epinephrine. It is injected into the thigh. It needs to be carried at all times.
There is no known way to prevent food allergies. Parents should talk to their child's doctor about when to start foods that are highly allergenic, such as peanuts.
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
Food Allergy Research & Education
Allergy Asthma Information Association
Calgary Allergy Network
Bird JA, Lack G, Perry TT. Clinical management of food allergy. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. 2015 Jan-Feb;3(1):1-11.
Food allergy. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/food-allergy. Updated October 29, 2018. Accessed September 18, 2019.
Immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated food allergy. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/immunoglobulin-e-ige-mediated-food-allergy . Updated May 14, 2019. Accessed September 18, 2019.
3/17/2015 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114561/Immunoglobulin-E-IgE-mediated-food-allergy : Du Toit G, Roberts G, et al. Randomized trial of peanut consumption in infants at risk for peanut allergy. N Engl J Med. Feb 26;372(9):803-813.
Last reviewed September 2019 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board Dianne Rishikof, MS, RDN, LDN, IFNCP
Last Updated: 9/18/2019