Infertility is not being able to conceive after a year of regular, unprotected sex. About one-third of infertility is caused by male factors and one-third are caused by female factors. In the remaining cases, the cause is unknown or is related to problems with both partners.
Men are considered infertile if they:
The Male Reproductive System
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Portions of the brain called the pituitary gland and hypothalamus, as well as male reproductive organs such as the testes affect fertility in men. Problems in any of these areas may decrease fertility.
In about half of the cases, a cause cannot be found. Some factors that can contribute to infertility include:
Factors that may increase your chance of developing infertility include:
Inability to have a child after one year of trying to conceive.
During the first visit, you and your partner will both be evaluated. You will be asked about your symptoms, medical history, and work history. Your doctor will look for potential exposure to certain chemicals. Your doctor will also look for physical problems that might cause infertility.
Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested. This can be done with:
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:
Other tests may include:
Treatment depends on what is causing the condition. Treatments can be costly and lengthy. They often are not covered by insurance.
Lifestyle changes may include:
If you have a hormonal imbalance, your doctor may prescribe medication. Clomiphene citrate, for example, is an anti-estrogen drug. In combination with vitamin E, it may help increase sperm count and improve sperm movement.
Surgery is done for conditions like varicocele that can affect fertility. Treatment of a varicocele does not always restore fertility.
Surgery may also be done to reverse a vasectomy. This reversal is not always successful.
ART involves using human sperm and eggs or embryos in a lab to help with conception. The eggs and sperm can be from you and your partner or donated. ART methods include:
To help reduce your chances of infertility:
Reproductive Facts—American Society for Reproductive Medicine
Resolve—The National Infertility Association
Men's Health Centre
Sex & U—the Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
Infertility. Protect Your Fertility website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed December 18, 2017.
Infertility in men. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T902812/Infertility-in-men . Updated December 4, 2017. Accessed December 18, 2017.
Jorgensen N, Carlsen E, Nermoen I, et al. East-West gradient in semen quality in the Nordic-Baltic area: a study of men from the general population in Denmark, Norway, Estonia and Finland. Hum Reprod. 2002;17(8):2199-2208.
Reproductive health and the workplace. National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/niosh/topics/repro. Updated April 20, 2017. Accessed December 18, 2017.
9/2/2010 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T902812/Infertility-in-men : Ghanem H, Shaeer O, El-Segini A. Combination clomiphene citrate and antioxidant therapy for idiopathic male infertility: a randomized controlled trial. Fertil Steril. 2010;93(7):2232-2235.
2/14/2011 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T902812/Infertility-in-men : Showell M, Brown J, Yazdani A, Stankiewicz M, Hart R. Antioxidants for male subfertility. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2011;(1):CD007411.
Last reviewed November 2018 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
Adrienne Carmack, MD
Last Updated: 1/29/2018