by Rick Alan
Pertussis is a bacterial infection. It is also called whooping cough. The bacteria invade the lining of the respiratory tract, which may cause airway blockage.
Pertussis is highly contagious, and in some cases, serious.
Upper Respiratory Tract
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Pertussis is caused by specific bacteria. It is spread by:
Factors that may increase the chances of pertussis:
Symptoms usually begin within a week or 2 after exposure.
Initial symptoms last about 1-2 weeks. They may include:
The second stage of pertussis is called the paroxysmal stage. This stage usually lasts 1-6 weeks, but can last much longer. Symptoms may include:
During the final stage, the cough gradually improves over 2-3 weeks. Episodes of coughing can still occur during this stage.
Complications in infants and young children may include:
Complications in teens and adults can include weight loss and inability to control urine. Rarely, fainting or rib fractures can occur from severe coughing.
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Your body fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
Treatment may include:
Pertussis is treated with antibiotics, which keeps the infection from spreading. They are most effective when started in the early stages. They will usually not improve the symptoms or otherwise affect the illness.
Antibiotics or cough medications do not prevent coughing. The following steps may help control symptoms and prevent complications:
This may be necessary for those who develop severe infections. People with pertussis are usually isolated to prevent spreading the disease to others.
The best way to prevent pertussis is with a vaccine. All children (with few exceptions) should receive the DTaP vaccine series. This protects against diphtheria, tetanus, and pertussis. Another vaccine called Tdap is routinely given to children aged 11-12 after they have completed the DTaP series of shots. There are also catch-up schedules for children and adults who have not been fully vaccinated.
Pregnant women should have a dose of Tdap during every pregnancy to protect newborns from pertussis.
People in close contact with someone infected with pertussis may be advised to take preventive antibiotics, even if they've been vaccinated. This is especially important in households with members at high risk for severe disease such as children under 1 year of age or people with weak immune systems.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
Caring for Kids—Canadian Paediatric Society
Public Health Agency of Canada
Immunization schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/schedules/index.html. Updated February 6, 2018. Accessed February 15, 2018.
Pertussis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114591/Pertussis . Updated September 22, 2017. Accessed February 15, 2018.
Pertussis. PEMSoft at EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://pemsoft.ebscohost.com/content/PPacCore/UID116325.html . Accessed February 15, 2018.
Pertussis (whooping cough). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/pertussis. Updated August 7, 2017. Accessed February 15, 2018.
Tdap vaccine. What you need to know Centers for Disease control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/tdap.pdf. Updated February 24, 2015. Accessed February 15, 2018.
Last reviewed March 2018 by
EBSCO Medical Review Board
David L. Horn, MD, FACP
Last Updated: 1/13/2014