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(Blood in the Urine—Adult)
by Diane W. Shannon, MD, MPH
Hematuria is blood in the urine. Normally, urine does not contain any blood.
There are 2 kinds of hematuria:
In some cases, the cause of hematuria is never found. The list of known causes is lengthy. Some more common causes include:
Risk Factors TOP
Factors that may increase your risk of hematuria include:
In some cases, there may not be additional symptoms.
But, if you have an underlying condition, you may have other symptoms. For example, kidney stones can cause blood in the urine, along with pain in the side, abdomen, or groin.
When Should I Call My Doctor?
Call your doctor any time you notice blood in your urine.
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may be referred to a nephrologist who specializes in kidney disease or a urologist who specializes in the urinary system.
Your doctor may need to test your bodily fluids. This can be done with:
Your doctor may need to view your bodily structures. This can be done with:
Treatment will depend on the cause of hematuria. Some causes of hematuria require no treatment or will resolve on their own. Other causes will respond to medication. For example, treating a urinary tract infection with antibiotics will stop the hematuria. Still, other causes may require surgery, such as the removal of a tumor or treatment for prostate cancer.
Treating the underlying condition that causes hematuria may help prevent it from occurring.
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
National Kidney Foundation
The Kidney Foundation of Canada
Gross hematuria—approach to the adult. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated June 27, 2016. Accessed September 7, 2017.
Hematuria in children. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/hematuria. Accessed August 31, 2015.
Hematuria in children. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated June 16, 2017. Accessed August 31, 2015.
Microhematuria—approach to the adult. EBSCO DynaMed Plus websithttp://www.dynamed.... Updated June 21, 2017. Accessed September 7, 2017.
Thaller TR, Wang LP. Evaluation of asymptomatic microscopic hematuria in adults. Am Fam Physician. 1999;60(4):1143-1152.
Urination problems. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at:
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Accessed September 7, 2017.
Last reviewed September 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrienne Carmack, MD
Last Updated: 9/3/2014
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