CRDAMC Homepage | CRDAMC Library Phone #: (254) 288-8366 | CRDAMC Library Fax #: (254) 288-8368

Search Health Library

Vulvar Cancer

Vull-varr Cancer


The vulva is the outer part of the female genitals that includes the labia, clitoris, and vaginal opening. There are different type of cancer that can occur in this area including:

  • Squamous cell carcinoma—cancers of the skin cells, most common type of vulvar cancer
  • Adenocarcinoma—from fluid producing glands, less common

Cancerous (malignant) tumors can invade nearby tissue and spread to other parts of the body.

Causes    TOP

Cancer occurs when cells in the body, in this case vulvar cells, divide without control or order. Eventually these cells can develop into a mass of tissue called a growth or tumor.

A healthy cell changes into a cancerous cell because of changes in the DNA. The exact reason the change happens is not clear but it is likely due to a combination of genetic and environmental factors.

Risk Factors    TOP

This condition is more common in women 65 to 75 years of age.

Factors that may increase your chance of vulvar cancer include:

  • Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection
  • Vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia
  • Cervical precancer or cervical cancer
  • A weakened immune system due to conditions such as HIV
  • Lichen sclerosus
  • Melanoma or atypical moles
  • Smoking
  • Chronic vulvar irritation or skin condition

Symptoms    TOP

Symptoms may include:

  • Persistent itching, burning, or bleeding of the vulva
  • Changes in the color of the skin of the vulva
  • Skin changes, such as a rash, mole, or warts
  • Sores, scales, lumps, or ulcers on the vulva
  • Pelvic pain, especially during urination or sex

Diagnosis    TOP

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. This will include a pelvic exam of your uterus, ovaries, cervix, and vagina. Your doctor may order blood tests.

A biopsy, removal of a piece of suspicious tissue for testing, will be done. The sample will confirm a cancer diagnosis. A Pap test may also be done to look for signs of cancer in nearby tissue.

Imaging studies, such as x-rays or CAT scans may be done to look for spreading of the tumor.

The physical exam combined with all of your test results will help to determine the stage of cancer you have. Staging is used to guide your treatment plan. Like other cancers, vulvar cancer is staged from 0-IV.

  • Stage 0 is a cancer only on the surface of the skin
  • Stage 1 is in the vulva and tissue between rectum and vagina
  • Stage 2 is growth that has spread to anal tissue or vagina
  • Stage 3 is growth that has spread to nearby tissue and is present in the lymph node
  • Stage 4 is increased growth to nearby tissue and lymph nodes, may spread to other areas of the body

The biopsy will determine the grade (1-4) and type of your tumor. These can predict how aggressive a tumor may be and help to determine the treatment.

Treatment    TOP

You and your doctor will determine which treatment or combinations of treatments work best for you, depending on the location, type, stage and grade of your tumor. Cancer treatment often includes a combination of the following treatments:


Surgery involves removing as much of the cancer as possible. Types of surgery to treat vulvar cancer include:

  • Excision—The cancer and surrounding tissue are removed to make sure all cancer cells are removed. The procedure is called a simple partial vulvectomy.
  • Vulvectomy—All or part of the vulva is removed.
  • Pelvic exenteration—A vulvectomy is done along with removal of the pelvic lymph nodes. The lower colon, rectum, bladder, uterus, cervix, and vagina may also be removed depending on how far the cancer has spread.
  • Inguinal lymph node dissection—Lymph nodes in the groin are removed. May be done if cancer is found in the lymph nodes.
  • Sentinel lymph node biopsy—The lymph nodes closest to the area where the cancer is located are removed.

Radiation Therapy

Radiation therapy is the use of radiation to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors. External radiation directs radiation at the tumor from a source outside the body. It is sometimes used along with chemotherapy to treat more advanced cancers. It may be used to shrink tumors before surgery or kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery.

Chemotherapy    TOP

Chemotherapy is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be given in many forms, including pill, injection, or via a catheter. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body killing mostly cancer cells, but also some healthy cells.

Prevention    TOP

To help reduce your chance of getting vulvar cancer:

  • Take steps to prevent HPV infection. This may include practicing safe sex and talking to your doctor about the HPV vaccine.
  • If you smoke or use tobacco products, talk to your doctor about ways to quit.


American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention


Canadian Cancer Society


Vaginal and vulvar cancers. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated March 13, 2014. Accessed July 8, 2016.
Vulvar cancer. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated May 2014. Accessed July 8, 2016.
Vulvar cancer—patient version. National Cancer Institute website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed July 8, 2016.
What is vulvar cancer? American Cancer Society website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated February 16, 2016. Accessed July 8, 2016.
What is vulvar cancer? Canadian Cancer Society website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed July 8, 2016.
Last reviewed July 2016 by Mohei Abouzied, MD
Last Last updated: 11/18/2106

EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.

Health Library: Editorial Policy | Privacy Policy | Terms and Conditions | Support
36000 Darnall Loop Fort Hood, Texas 76544-4752 | Phone: (254) 288-8000