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Pneumonia is an infection of the lungs. It affects the small airways and air sacs.

Pneumonia can be described by where and how a child was infected. Types include:

  • Community-acquired—from the community, such as home, school, or daycare
  • Nosocomial—in a hospital or healthcare setting
  • Aspiration—happens when foreign matter is inhaled into the lungs, such as food, liquid, saliva, or vomit

Infection in the Air Sacs of the Lungs

Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes    TOP

Viruses, bacteria, or other germs most often cause pneumonia. Cold or flu viruses are the most common cause of pneumonia in children. Rarely, pneumonia can be caused by food, liquid, or other items that are inhaled.

The infection or inhaled substance causes irritation, inflammation, and swelling in the deeper areas of the lungs. Pus or other fluids can also build up in the area. The swelling and fluid make it difficult for oxygen to pass from the lungs to the blood.

Risk Factors    TOP

Pneumonia is more common in children under the age of 5 years.

Factors that may increase your child’s chance of pneumonia include:

Symptoms    TOP

Pneumonia may cause respiratory symptoms such as:

  • Cough, which may or may not produce mucus
  • Wheezing—a hoarse whistling sound
  • Rapid breathing
  • Shortness of breath, may cause nasal flaring

It may also cause nonrespiratory symptoms such as:

  • Fever and chills
  • Chest pain
  • Reduced activity levels
  • Irritability
  • Lack of appetite or difficulty feeding—may lead to dehydration
  • Vomiting
  • Headache
  • Abdominal pain
  • Bluish gray color around the nose, lips, or fingernails—severe cases

Diagnosis    TOP

You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. The exam will evaluate your child’s breathing and lung sounds. Diagnosis may be made based on these findings.

The amount of oxygen may be measured with a small clip on your child’s finger (pulse oximetry). This will show how much the pneumonia is affecting the transfer of oxygen from the lungs to the blood.

Other tests may be done to find the specific germ causing the pneumonia, or to confirm a diagnosis if it is not clear. Tests may include:

  • Blood tests
  • Sputum culture
  • Urine tests

Imaging tests may also be done to see what areas of the lungs are affected. Tests may include:

Treatment    TOP

Treatment of pneumonia depends on:

  • What is causing the pneumonia
  • Severity of symptoms
  • Other factors, like the overall health of the child

Treatment options may include:


Pneumonia caused by a bacterial infection can be treated with antibiotics. Antiviral medications may be used to help manage pneumonia caused by some viruses.

Other medications may be used to help manage symptoms reduce discomfort.


Hospitalization may be needed for children with severe pneumonia, or who are at high risk for severe pneumonia. Treatments in the hospital may include:

  • Oxygen therapy to increase levels of oxygen in the blood
  • Nutrition and fluids through IV for children who have trouble feeding or keeping food down
  • Medication delivered through IV

Hospitalization may also be needed to monitor children with weakened immune systems or whose infection has spread to the blood.

Prevention    TOP

Certain vaccines can help prevent pneumonia. Talk to your child’s doctor about options for your child such as:

  • Flu vaccine—in all children aged 6 months and older
  • Pneumococcal vaccine:
    • PCV13 is recommended in all children, and routinely given to all children aged 2 months to 5 years
    • PCV23 in children aged 2 years and older who have a high risk of infection or a suppressed immune system
  • Hemophilus influenza type B vaccine, routinely given to all children aged 2 months to 5 years
  • Pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine, routinely given to all children aged 2 months to 5 years as part of the DTaP vaccine
  • Pertussis (whooping cough) vaccine, routinely given to children 11 years or older as part of the Tdap vaccine

Some children may have a higher risk of pneumonia. Medication may be given to these children after a viral infection to help reduce their risk of pneumonia. For example, antibiotics may be given to prevent pneumonia in children with reduced immunity or certain underlying illnesses such as cystic fibrosis.

To decrease your child’s risk of any respiratory infection:

  • Do not expose your child to tobacco smoke. Smoke weakens the lungs' resistance to infection.
  • Have your child avoid close contact with people who have a cold or the flu.
  • Encourage your child to wash their hands often, especially after coming into contact with someone who is sick.
  • Treat any chronic disease.


Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics


Caring for Kids—Canadian Paediatric Society
The College of Family Physicians of Canada


Community-acquired pneumonia in children. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated August 15, 2017. Accessed August 23, 2017.
Immunization schedules. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
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Updated February 7, 2017. Accessed August 23, 2017.
Pneumonia. Kids Health—Nemours Foundation website. Available at:
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Updated May 2011. Accessed August 23, 2017.
Pneumonia. WHO website. Available at:
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Updated September 2016. Accessed August 23, 2017.
Pneumonia in Children. Bostons Children's Hospital website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed August 23, 2017.
Pneumonia in Children. Children's Hospital of Philadelphia website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed August 23, 2017.
Last reviewed September 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael Woods, MD, FAAP
Last Updated: 2/3/2015

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