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Bartholin Gland Cyst

(Bartholin’s Cyst; Greater Vestibular Gland Cyst; Bartholin Gland Abscess)

Bar-tho-lynn Gland Sist

Definition

Bartholin glands are located on either side of the entrance to the vagina. A cyst is a pocket of fluid in the tissue around these glands. If the cyst becomes infected, it is called a Bartholin gland abscess.

Causes    TOP

Bartholin glands make fluid that lubricates the vagina. If the glands become blocked, the fluid can back up and create a cyst. Sometimes, bacteria or viruses can develop in this fluid and lead to an infection.

Risk Factors    TOP

Women with a history of cysts are more likely to develop a Bartholin gland cyst.

Sexually transmitted infections may also increase the risk of an infected cyst.

Symptoms    TOP

Symptoms may include:

  • A painless or tender lump on either side of the opening of the vagina
  • A lump that may grow in size over time
  • Pain with activities, such as walking or intercourse

Diagnosis    TOP

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may be referred to a specialist.

Your bodily fluids and tissues may be tested if an infection is suspected. The sample may be sent for a culture or biopsy.

Treatment    TOP

Those without symptoms may be monitored without treatment. Antibiotics may be advised if there is an infection caused by bacteria. Pain medication may help manage discomfort.

If your symptoms do not improve, surgery may be required. The 3 types of surgical options include:

Catheterization

A catheter is inserted into the cyst to let fluid drain out. The catheter will stay in place 4-6 weeks while the fluid drains from the cyst.

Marsupialization

If catheterization is not effective, then an incision may be made into the cyst to allow the fluid to drain. A small opening may be left to let the fluid continue to drain.

Gland Removal    TOP

For some, the gland may be removed but this is less common.

Prevention    TOP

There is no known way to prevent a Bartholin gland cyst.

RESOURCES:

American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
http://www.acog.org
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
http://familydoctor.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
http://www.sogc.org

References:

Bartholin gland cyst and abscess. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated November 15, 2013. Accessed September 17, 2017.
Bartholin’s cyst. NHS Choices website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated April 9, 2015. Accessed September 12, 2017.
Bartholin’s gland cyst. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated July 2017. Accessed September 12, 2017.
Omole F, Simmons B, Hacker Y. Management of Bartholin’s duct cyst and gland abscess. Am Fam Physician. 2003;68(1):135-140.
Last reviewed September 2016 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Beverly Siegal, MD, FACOG
Last Updated: 9/3/2014

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