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Schizotypal Personality Disorder

Definition

Schizotypal personality disorder is a personality disorder characterized by odd behaviors, beliefs, thoughts, and difficulties in social situations. People with personality disorders are not aware that their thoughts and behaviors are inappropriate.

Causes    TOP

It is not clear what causes personality disorders, but it is likely a combination of genetic factors and a person's environment.

Frontal Lobe of the Brain

Frontal lobe
Although the cause of personality disorders is not clear, it is believed that the frontal lobe is where personality and impulses arise.
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Risk Factors    TOP

Schizotypal personality disorder is more common in men. People who have relatives with schizophrenia may have an increased chance of developing schizotypal personality disorder.

Symptoms    TOP

Schizotypal personality may cause:

  • Detachment from social relationships and difficulty forming relationships
  • Limited range of emotional expression
  • Odd or eccentric speech, dress, and grooming
  • Unusual style of communication
  • Illusions and alterations in perception
  • "Magical" thinking
  • Peculiar, outlandish, or paranoid ideas or beliefs
  • Social anxiety
  • Talking to self

Diagnosis    TOP

You will likely be referred to a psychiatrist or other mental health professional who will ask you about your symptoms and mental and medical health history. A diagnosis will be made after a complete psychiatric assessment that rules out other disorders, such as schizophrenia, dissociative disorders, obsessive-compulsive personality disorder, or other personality disorders.

Treatment    TOP

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Options include:

Counseling

Counseling is often beneficial for people with schizotypal personality disorder. Counseling sessions focus on helping you gain insight into your personality disorder and changing your behavior.

Medications

Currently there is no medication available specifically for this condition. However, in some cases antipsychotic medications may be used to help treat distorted thinking.

Other Treatments    TOP

Other treatments, such as group therapy and social skills training, can help you to manage symptoms.

Prevention    TOP

There are no current guidelines to prevent schizotypal personality disorder.

RESOURCES:

National Institute of Mental Health
http://www.nimh.nih.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Canadian Psychiatric Association
http://www.cpa-apc.org
Canadian Psychological Association
http://cpa.ca

References:

Personality disorders. Mental Health America website. Available at:
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Accessed July 22, 2013.
Last reviewed December 2015 by Adrian Preda, MD
Last Updated: 12/20/2014

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