|CRDAMC Homepage | CRDAMC Library Phone #: (254) 288-8366 | CRDAMC Library Fax #: (254) 288-8368|
by Rick Alan
Growth hormone (GH) controls the growth of soft tissue and bone. Elevated GH causes an excess of bone and soft tissue growth. In adults, this can cause a rare disorder called acromegaly. It can cause serious complications and early death if not treated.
In young children, bone growth is still occurring. Excess GH can cause a similar condition called gigantism. Gigantism causes dramatic growth in children.
The pituitary gland is a small gland located at the base of the brain. It produces many hormones, including GH.
In most cases, the elevation of GH is caused by a benign tumor of this gland. In a small number of cases, cancerous tumors of other organs, such as the pancreas, adrenal, or lung, may be the source of excess GH.
Risk Factors TOP
Acromegaly is more common in people aged 40-45 years old. Family history of acromegaly may rarely increase your risk of this condition.
Symptoms usually develop slowly over time.
In children, the bones are longer and cause soft tissue swelling. If not treated, children can grow to a height of 7-8 feet.
Symptoms and complications in adults may include:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. It is helpful for the doctor to have pictures of yourself when you were younger. A physical exam will be done. Acromegaly is often not diagnosed until years after it begins.
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with blood tests.
Images may be taken of your bodily structures. This can be done with:
The goals of treatment are to:
Treatment may include:
The tumor that is believed to be causing acromegaly may be removed. In most cases, this is the preferred treatment. However, drug treatment is increasing in popularity.
In adults, external beams of radiation are used to shrink the tumor. It is most often used when surgery cannot be used or when medications have failed.
Medications may be given to:
There are no current guidelines to prevent acromegaly. Early treatment will help to prevent serious complications.
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
Pituitary Network Association
Canadian Society of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Abrams P, Alexopoulou O, Abs R, Maiter D, Verhelst J. Optimalization and cost management of lanreotide-Autogel therapy in acromegaly. Eur J Endocrinol. 2007;157(5):571-577.
Acromegaly. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T116280/Acromegaly. Updated October 30, 2015. Accessed September 23, 2016.
Glustina A, Barkan A, Casanueva FF, et al. Criteria for cure of acromegaly: a consensus statement. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2000;85(2):526-529.
Katznelson L, Atkinson JL, Cook DM, et al. American association of clinical endocrinologists medical guidelines for clinical practice for the diagnosis and treatment of acromegaly—2011 update: executive summary. Endocr Pract. 2011;17(4):636-646.
Melmed S, Casanueva FF, Cavagnini F, et al. Acromegaly treatment consensus workshop participants: guidelines for acromegaly management. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002;87(9):4054-4058.
Melmed S. Medical progress: acromegaly. N Engl J Med. 2006;355(24):2558-2573.
Paisley AN, Trainer PJ. Medical treatment in acromegaly. Curr Opin Pharmacol. 2003;3(6):672-677.
Sherlock M, Woods C, Sheppard MC. Medical therapy in acromegaly. Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2011;7(5):291-300.
Trainer PJ, Drake WM, Katznelson L, et al. Treatment of acromegaly with the growth hormone-receptor antagonist pegvisomant. N Engl J Med. 2000;342(16):1171-1177.
Last reviewed February 2016 by Kim Carmichael, MD
Last Updated: 2/17/2016
EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.
This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.
To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at firstname.lastname@example.org. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.