Type 1 diabetes needs to be monitored. This includes:
Blood glucose should be tested at least four times per day (before breakfast, lunch, dinner, and bedtime). Some people may need to check it more often.
It can be monitored using a home kit. It includes a special device to obtain a drop of blood. The drop of blood is applied to a test strip used with a glucometer device. The device reads the test strip and displays the test result. This information can be shared with a person's doctor to help manage care.
HbA1c is a blood test that shows a person's average blood glucose level over 2 to 3 months.
Test results are given in percentages:
A ketone test checks the urine or blood for ketones. The body breaks down fat when it cannot use glucose for energy. Ketones are a by-product of this process. Large amounts of ketones can lead to a deadly problem called diabetic ketoacidosis. It needs to be treated right away.
A ketone test has strips that are passed through the stream of urine or placed it in a cup of urine. The strip is compared against a color chart that shows whether ketones are in the urine. Ketones in the blood can be found using special glucose meters.
American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2019. Diabetes Care. 2019. Jan; 42 (Suppl 1):S1-193.
Diabetes mellitus type 1. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:https://www.dynamed.com/condition/diabetes-mellitus-type-1-34. Updated June 28, 2019. Accessed November 22, 2019.
Type 1 diabetes. American Diabetes Association website. Available at: https://www.diabetes.org/diabetes/type-1. Accessed November 22, 2019.
Last reviewed September 2019 by EBSCO Medical Review Board James P. Cornell, MD Last Updated: 12/3/2019