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Acute Silicosis

Definition

Silicosis is a lung disease. It is caused by breathing dust that contains crystalline silica. In acute silicosis, the disease occurs after weeks or months of exposure to very high levels of the silica.

Causes    TOP

Crystalline silica can be found in:

  • Concrete
  • Masonry
  • Sandstone
  • Rock
  • Paint
  • Other abrasives
  • Soil
  • Mortar
  • Plaster
  • Shingles

When these materials are cut, broken, crushed, drilled, ground, or blasted, silica dust may be produced. When silica dust gets into the air you breathe, it may become trapped in your lungs. The dust buildup damages your lungs. More dust will create more damage. This will make it hard for you to breathe.

Pathway to Lungs

Respiratory Pathway
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Risk Factors    TOP

Working in the following occupations increases your chance of acute silicosis:

  • Sandblasting (the most common cause of acute silicosis)
  • Construction
  • Wrecking and demolition
  • Abrasive blasting
  • Masonry
  • Concrete finishing
  • Drywall finishing
  • Rock drilling
  • Stone milling or cutting
  • Mining
  • Sand and gravel screening
  • Rock crushing (for road base)
  • Agriculture
  • Ceramics, clay, pottery
  • Glass manufacturing
  • Vitreous enameling of china plumbing fixtures
  • Manufacturing of soaps and detergents
  • Shipyards, railroads

Symptoms    TOP

Symptoms may appear within a few weeks to 2 years after exposure:

  • Shortness of breath
  • Severe cough
  • Weakness
  • Fever
  • Weight loss
  • Night sweats
  • Chest pains
  • Respiratory failure

Diagnosis    TOP

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. You will also be asked about your work history. A physical exam will be done. Tests may include the following:

Peak Flow Meter—Pulmonary Function Test

Lung test
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Treatment    TOP

There is no specific treatment for silicosis. If you have acute silicosis, you will be advised to avoid additional exposure. Your doctor may also treat other conditions associated with acute silicosis. These may include blockage or airway narrowing. You will also be advised to avoid smoking.

Prevention    TOP

To help reduce your chance of silicosis:

  • Avoid working in dust whenever possible.
  • Use water sprays and ventilation when working in confined structures.
  • If applicable, wear a mask or respirator designed for protection against crystalline silica and the type of job you do.
    • Your employer may provide the mask.
    • You cannot have a beard or mustache if you use certain types of tight-fitting respiratory masks.
  • Take advantage of health screenings offered by your employer.
  • Practice good personal hygiene in the workplace.
  • Do not eat, drink, or use tobacco near dusty areas.
  • After exposure to dust, wash your hands before eating, drinking, or smoking.
  • Park your car where it will not become contaminated.
  • Shower and change before leaving work.

RESOURCES:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention—National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health
http://www.cdc.gov
Occupational Safety & Health Administration
https://www.osha.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety
http://www.ccohs.ca
The Lung Association
http://www.lung.ca

References:

Interstitial lung disease. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated March 4, 2016. Accessed September 27, 2016.
Silicosis. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated May 2014. Accessed May 4, 2016.
Silicosis: Learn the facts! National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated June 6, 2014. Accessed May 4, 2016.
Last reviewed June 2016 by Michael Woods, MD
Last Updated: 6/20/2013

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