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Tapeworm

Definition

Tapeworms are large, flat parasitic worms that live in the intestinal tracts of some animals. They are passed to humans who consume foods or water contaminated with tapeworm larvae.

Six types of tapeworms are known to infect humans, usually identified by their source of infestation: beef, pork, fish, dog, rodent, and dwarf (because it is small).

Digestive Pathway

Digestive pathway
Tapeworms enter the human body with contaminated food or water and remain in the intestines.
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Causes    TOP

Tapeworm infection in people usually results from eating undercooked foods from infected animals. Pigs or cattle, for example, become infected when grazing in pastures or drinking contaminated water. People can also become infected by eating contaminated fish that is raw or undercooked.

The parasites mature in the animal’s intestines to pea-shaped larvae. They spread to the animal's blood and muscles. They are then transmitted to people who eat the contaminated food. This method is more common with beef or fish.

Tapeworms can also be passed by hand-to-mouth contact if you touch a surface contaminated with tapeworm eggs and then touch your mouth. This method is more common with pork.

Risk Factors    TOP

The following factors may increase your chance of a tapeworm infection:

  • Eating raw or undercooked pork, beef, or fish
  • Poor hygiene—not washing your hands can increase the risk of transferring tapeworm parasites by hand-to-mouth contact
  • Exposure to cattle or pigs, particularly in areas where human and animal feces are not properly disposed
  • Travel to underdeveloped countries with poor sanitary conditions

Symptoms    TOP

Tapeworms may be seen in vomit or stool. In some cases, tapeworm infection may not cause any symptoms. If symptoms do occur, they may include:

  • Nausea
  • Abdominal pain
  • Bloating
  • Diarrhea
  • Hunger or loss of appetite
  • Weakness
  • Weight loss
  • Seizures in rare cases of pork tapeworm

Diagnosis    TOP

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may be able to self-diagnose tapeworm infection by checking your stool for signs of tapeworms.

Your bodily fluids and waste may be tested. This can be done with:

  • Blood test
  • Stool test

Images of your brain may be taken if there is concern that the larva of the pork tapeworm have migrated there. This can be done with:

Treatment    TOP

Tapeworm infection is treated with oral medication. The medications work by dissolving or attacking the adult tapeworm. The medications may not target eggs.

Surgery may occasionally be needed for pork tapeworm larvae in the brain

Proper hygiene is essential to avoid re-infection. Always wash your hands before eating or after going to the bathroom.

Your doctor will check stool samples at 1 and 3 months after you've finished taking your medication.

Prevention    TOP

To help reduce your chance of a tapeworm infection:

  • Wash your hands with soap and hot water before eating or handling food
  • Wash your hands after using the toilet.
  • Freeze meat for 4 days or longer to kill the type of tapeworm that infects pork.
  • Thoroughly cook meat at temperatures of at least 150°F (65°C). Avoid eating raw or undercooked food.
  • When traveling in undeveloped countries, wash and cook all fruits and vegetables with safe water before eating.
  • Get prompt treatment for pets infected with tapeworm.

RESOURCES:

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov
The World Health Organization
http://www.who.int

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Public Health Agency of Canada
http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca

References:

Beef tapeworm. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114440/Beef-tapeworm. Updated January 19, 2011. Accessed December 7, 2016.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Traveler's Health—Yellow Book: Taeniasis. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated July 10, 2015. Accessed February 23, 2016.
Silva CV, Costa-Cruz JM. A glance at Taenia Saginata infection, diagnosis, vaccine, biological control and treatment. Infect Disord Drug Targets. 2010;10(5):313-321.
5/6/2011 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114440/Beef-tapeworm: Quet F, Guerchet M, et al. Meta-analysis of the association between cysticercosis and epilepsy in Africa. Epilepsia. 2010;51(5):830-837.
Last reviewed March 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael Woods, MD, FAAP
Last Updated: 5/11/2013

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