This is a surgery to remove severely diseased and damaged lung. They are replaced with healthy lungs from a deceased donor. One or both lungs may be transplanted. In some cases, a heart transplant is done at the same time. In that case, the procedure is called a heart-lung transplant.
A lung transplant is done to treat irreversible, life-threatening lung disease, such as:
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Problems from the procedure are rare, but all procedures have some risk. Your doctor will review potential problems, like:
Before you have a lung transplant, you will go through an intensive evaluation. This is done to determine if you are a good candidate for this surgery. During the evaluation, which often requires a hospital stay, you will have some or all of the following tests:
If you are a good candidate for a transplant, you will be put on a waiting list. There is a shortage of donors. You may need to wait a long time. You will need to carry a cell phone with you at all times. This will allow the transplant team to reach you if a donor lung becomes available. Donors are matched carefully for size, tissue type, and other factors. In some cases, a healthy family member can donate a lung if you only need a single transplant.
Leading up to your procedure:
General anesthesia will be used. It will keep you asleep during the surgery.
For a single lung transplant, the doctor will make an incision on your side. It will be about 6 inches below your underarm. For a double lung transplant, the doctor will make an incision across the lower chest.
You will be put on a ventilator and a heart-lung machine. This machine will take over the functions of the heart and lungs during surgery. Next, the doctor will remove a small section of rib. This will allow access to your lung. The old lung will be cut away from the main blood vessel and bronchus (large airway). The new lung will then be inserted. The doctor will attach the blood vessels and bronchus to the new lung.
You will stay in the intensive care unit (ICU) for 2-3 days.
Anesthesia will prevent pain during surgery. Pain and discomfort after the procedure can be managed with medications.
This surgery is done in a hospital setting. The usual length of stay is 7-10 days. Your doctor may choose to keep you longer if you shows signs of rejecting the new lungs or have other problems.
Arrange for help at home until you can manage on your own. Ongoing treatment and monitoring may include:
It will take about 6 months to recover from a lung transplant.
It is important for you to monitor your recovery after you leave the hospital. Alert your doctor to any problems right away. If any of the following occur, call your doctor:
Call for emergency medical services right away if any of the following occurs:
If you think you have an emergency, call for emergency medical services right away.
American Lung Association
United Network for Organ Sharing
Explore lung transplant. National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute website. Available at: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/health-topics/topics/lungtxp. Updated. December 9, 2016. Accessed August 29, 2017.
Lung transplant Surgery. Cleveland Clinic website. Available at: https://my.clevelandclinic.org/health/articles/lung-transplant-surgery. Published May 12, 2017. Accessed August 29, 2017.
Lung transplant. Johns Hopkins Medicine Health Library website. Available at: http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/test_procedures/pulmonary/lung_transplantation_procedure_92,P07752/. Accessed August 29, 2017.
Last reviewed September 2017 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Michael Woods, MD, FAAP Last Updated: 8/29/2017