Kidney failure is when your kidneys don’t work as they should. There are two main types:
Waste and excess fluids are screened out in the kidneys and passed as urine. Filters in the kidneys help to control how much fluid and healthy elements like sodium leave the body. Kidney failure makes it hard for the body to keep fluids and other important elements in balance.
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.
Kidney failure is caused by injury to the filters and other areas of the kidneys. AKI is most often caused by trauma, infection, or a toxin that cause sudden injury. CKD is often caused by long term health problems. These problems cause wear and tear to kidneys over time. The two most common causes of CKD are:
Other common causes:
The risk of kidney failure is higher with:
Symptoms are usually not present in early stages. Later stages may cause:
The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. Urine tests will be done to look for signs of kidney problems such as:
Blood tests will also be done to measure levels of some elements. Images of the kidney may be taken with:
The goal of kidney failure treatment is to slow further damage. Treatment may also be needed to balance fluids and clean waste from the blood. AKI may only need short term support. The kidneys may recover enough fucntion once they recover from injury.
CKD may need more long term treatment.
Changes in day to day habits can ease stress on the kidneys. It may slow damage to kidneys. Steps may include:
Medicines help manage:
Your doctor may also change medicines you take if they harm your kidneys.
Dialysis takes over the work of the kidneys. You may need it for a short time while they heal. Some people need it for life. Others use it until a kidney transplant is ready.
There are 2 main types:
A transplant may work for some people. A healthy kidney comes from a donor. It’s placed next to the existing kidney during surgery. The new kidney should work well enough for you to stop dialysis.
An effective transplant may depend on the cause of kidney damage and your overall health.
To lower your chances of kidney problems:
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases
National Kidney Foundation
The Kidney Foundation of Canada
Acute kidney injury. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T566508/Acute-kidney-injury. Updated April 26, 2018. Accessed June 6, 2018.
Chronic kidney disease (CKD) in adults. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T115336/Chronic-kidney-disease-CKD-in-adults. Updated March 27, 2018. Accessed June 6, 2018.
Gaitonde DY, Cook DL, Rivera IM. Chronic kidney disease: detection and evaluation. Am Fam Physician. 2017;96(12):776-783.
Kidney failure. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/kidney-failure. Accessed June 6, 2018.
Snivel CS, Gutierrez C. Chronic kidney disease: prevention and treatment of common complications. Am Fam Physician. 2004;70(10):1921-1928.
Use of herbal supplements in chronic kidney disease. National Kidney Foundation website. Available at: https://www.kidney.org/atoz/content/herbalsupp. Accessed June 6, 2018.
Your kidneys and how they work. National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases website. Available at: https://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/kidney-disease/kidneys-how-they-work. Updated March 2014. Accessed June 6, 2018.
1/4/2011 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T905401/Anemia-of-chronic-kidney-disease: Deved V, Poyah P, James MT, et al. Ascorbic acid for anemia management in hemodialysis patients: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Kidney Dis. 2009;54(6):1089-1097.
10/10/2013 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T908720/Chronic-kidney-disease-mineral-and-bone-disorder-CKD-MBD: Di lorio B, Molony D, Bell C, et al. Sevelamer versus calcium carbonate in incident hemodialysis patients: Results of an open-label 24-month randomized clinical trial. Am J Kidney Dis. 2013;62(4):771-778.
Last reviewed December 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Last Updated: 6/6/2020