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Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
(Crib Death; SIDS)
by Cynthia M. Johnson, MA
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) refers to the unexpected, unexplained death of a child less than 1 year old. SIDS is rare during the first month of life. It peaks at 2-4 months of age, then gradually decreases.
Experts do not know the exact cause of SIDS. Many theories exist. Potential causes include:
Risk Factors TOP
SIDS is more common in infants less than 6 months old. Other factors that increase your infant's chance of SIDS include:
A baby that dies of SIDS typically appears healthy. The baby may have had a cold or gastrointestinal infection in the 2 weeks prior to death. There usually are no warning signs that a baby is about to have SIDS.
All possible illnesses and causes of death must be ruled out before a diagnosis of SIDS is made. A complete investigation will take place including:
Emergency medical personnel should be called as soon as the infant is discovered not breathing. Infant CPR should be started right away. Seek medical care right away even if the baby starts breathing again. The cause of the incident should be fully evaluated. Families may need grief counseling after the death. Some parents find support groups helpful.
There is no way to predict which infants will die of SIDS. Several actions may help you lower your child's chance of SIDS:
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
Healthy Children—American Academy of Pediatrics
About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children
Caring for Kids—Canadian Paediatric Society
American Academy of Pediatrics SIDS Task Force. The changing concept of sudden infant death syndrome: diagnostic coding shifts, controversies regarding the sleeping environment, and new variables to consider in reducing risk. Pediatrics. 2005;116:1245-1255.
Galland BC, et al. Prone versus supine sleep position: a review of the physiological studies in SIDS research. J Paediatr Child Health. 2002;38:332-338.
Hunt CE, Hauck FR. Sudden infant death syndrome. CMAJ. 2006;174:1861-1869.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.... Updated September 15, 2017. Accessed March 20, 2018.
Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). Kid's Health—Nemours Foundation website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated February 2017. Accessed March 20, 2018.
10/23/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.dynamed.com: Blair P, Sidebotham P, et al. Hazardous cosleeping environments and risk factors amenable to change: case-control study of SIDS in south west England. BMJ. 2009;339:b3666.
11/14/2011 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.dynamed...: Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. SIDS and other sleep-related infant deaths: expansion of recommendations for a safe infant sleeping environment. Pediatrics. 2011;128(5):1030-1039.
10/25/2016 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.dynamed...: SIDS and Other Sleep-Related Infant Deaths: Evidence Base for 2016 Updated Recommendations for a Safe Infant Sleeping Environment Rachel Y. Moon, Task Force on Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Pediatrics Oct 2016, e20162940; DOI: 10.1542/peds.2016-2940 .
9/26/2017 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillance. http://www.dynamed...: Psaila K, Foster JP, et al. Infant pacifiers for reduction in risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2017 Apr 5;4:CD011147.
Last reviewed March 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Kari Kassir, MD
Last Updated: 9/26/2017
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