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Wrist Sprain

(Sprain, Wrist)

Definition

Ligaments are strong bands of tissue that hold bones to each other. A wrist sprain is stretching or tearing of the ligaments of the wrist.

Wrist Sprain

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Causes    TOP

Trauma causes a wrist sprain. Falling on an outstretched hand with your wrist stretched causes this to happen. It is the most common cause. There are other ways it can happen.

Risk Factors    TOP

Playing sports may raise your risk.

Symptoms    TOP

A wrist sprain may cause:

  • Pain or soreness
  • Swelling
  • Warmth
  • Bruising
  • Problems moving your wrist

It can be hard to tell a wrist sprain from a fracture or dislocation of one of the small wrist bones. See your doctor if your pain does not get better.

Diagnosis    TOP

You will be asked about your symptoms and how you hurt your wrist. An exam of your wrist will be done.

Pictures of your wrist may be taken. This can be done with:

Wrist sprains are graded from 1 to 3:

  • Grade 1—Some stretching with micro-tearing of ligament
  • Grade 2—Partial tearing of ligament
  • Grade 3—Complete tearing of ligament

Treatment    TOP

Treatment includes:

Acute Care

Rest

Your wrist will need time to heal. Do not do things that cause pain or put extra stress on your wrist.

Ice

Ice may help reduce swelling and pain in the first few days after the injury.

Compression

Compression can reduce swelling. Use an elastic bandage around the wrist.

Elevation

Elevation can also help reduce swelling. Raise the arm higher than the heart. A couple of days of elevation might be advised for severe strains.

Pain Relief Medicine

Your doctor may advise over-the-counter medicine, such as ibuprofen.

Note: Aspirin is not advised for children with a current or recent viral infection. Check with your doctor before giving your child aspirin.

Recovery

Support may be needed to protect, support, and keep the wrist in line while it heals. This may include:

  • A brace—A brace may need to be worn to keep the wrist still as it heals.
  • A cast—A cast may be needed for 2-3 weeks in cases of severe sprain.
  • Rehabilitation exercises—Exercises to strengthen muscles and range of motion may be advised by a doctor or physical therapist.
  • Surgery—Surgery is rarely needed. However, it may be needed to repair a ligament that is torn completely.

Prevention    TOP

Wrist sprains may not always be preventable. Wear proper padding and safety gear when you take part in sports or activities.

RESOURCES:

American College of Sports Medicine
http://www.acsm.org
Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons
http://orthoinfo.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Canadian Orthopaedic Association
http://www.coa-aco.org
Canadian Orthopaedic Foundation
http://www.canorth.org

References:

Abraham MK, Scott S. The emergent evaluation and treatment of hand and wrist injuries. Emerg Med Clin North Am. 2010 Nov;28(4):789-809.
Derry S, Moore RA, Gaskell H, McIntyre M, Wiffen PJ. Topical NSAIDs for acute musculoskeletal pain in adults. Cochrane Database Syst Rev.2015;(6):CD007402.
Overview of Sprains and Other Soft-Tissue Injuries. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/injuries-poisoning/sprains-and-other-soft-tissue-injuries/overview-of-sprains-and-other-soft-tissue-injuries Updated August 2017. Accessed May 30, 2018.
Parmelee-Peters K, Eathorne SW. The wrist: common injuries and management. Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice. 2006 March 32(1).
Sprains and strains. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases—National Institutes of Health website. Available at: https://www.niams.nih.gov/health-topics/sprains-and-strains. Updated January 30, 2015. Accessed June 11, 2018.
Wrist sprains. Ortho Info—American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons website. Available at:
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Updated April 2018. Accessed June 11, 2018.
Last reviewed June 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Laura Lei-Rivera, PT, DPT, GCS
Last Updated: 6/22/2015

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