CRDAMC Homepage | CRDAMC Library Phone #: (254) 288-8366 | CRDAMC Library Fax #: (254) 288-8368

Search Health Library

Kawasaki Disease

(Kawasaki Syndrome; Mucocutaneous Lymph Node Syndrome)

Pronounced: Kah-wah-sock-ee

Definition

Kawasaki disease is an illness that affects young children. It causes irritation and swelling of the skin, mouth, and lymph nodes. More serious illness can also lead to swelling of the coronary arteries. These arteries supply oxygen to the heart. The swelling can cause serious heart problems like a weakening of blood vessel walls ( aneurysm) and heart attack.

Coronary Arteries

si1371.jpg
Copyright © Nucleus Medical Media, Inc.

Causes    TOP

The cause of Kawasaki disease is unknown. Some believe it is an infectious agent like a virus. However, Kawasaki does not seem to be contagious. It does not spread through households like the flu.

Risk Factors    TOP

Kawasaki disease is most common in children less than five year old. It is rare in adults. Children of Asian ethnicity also seem to be more likely to get Kawasaki disease.

Outbreaks of the disease are more common during the winter and early spring months.

Symptoms    TOP

Early symptoms in the first 2 weeks may include:

  • High fever—lasting for at least 5 days and usually greater than 102 degrees Fahrenheit (38.8 degrees Celsius)
  • Irritability
  • Red or bloodshot whites of the eyes due to conjunctivitis
  • Rash
  • Soreness and swelling of the mouth, lips, and throat
  • Strawberry tongue—white/yellow coating and bright red bumps on tongue
  • Swollen hands and feet that may look red
  • Swollen lymph nodes (organs of the immune system) in the neck

Later symptoms (within 2 weeks of the start of the fever) may include:

  • Peeling of skin on hands and feet
  • Joint problems
  • Diarrhea, vomiting, or abdominal pain

Diagnosis    TOP

There is no specific test to diagnose Kawasaki disease. You will be asked about your child’s symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.

Your child's bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with:

  • Blood tests
  • Urine tests

Images may be taken of your child's heart. This can be done with an echocardiogram.

The electrical activity of your child's heart may be measured. This can be done with an electrocardiogram (EKG).

Treatment    TOP

Kawasaki will go away on its own. However, treatment can help to limit the damage the illness does. The sooner Kawasaki disease is treated, the better the outcome. Treatment is especially important to reduce risk of damage to the heart.

Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for your child. Treatment options include the following:

Intravenous Gamma Globulin

Gamma globulin naturally occurs in the body. It is a protein that helps your body fight infections. This treatment provides a concentrated dose of gamma globulin. It is passed into your bloodstream through an IV.

This treatment may decrease the risk of heart complications. It is most effective when given early in the illness, ideally the first 10 days.

Aspirin

High doses of aspirin may also be advised. Aspirin may help to manage symptoms by:

  • Preventing the formation of blood clots
  • Reducing fever
  • Easing joint swelling
  • Treating rashes

Note : If your child is given aspirin therapy and develops symptoms of a viral infection, especially chickenpox or the flu, call the doctor about stopping aspirin therapy. Aspirin has been associated with Reye's syndrome, a potentially fatal condition.

Other Medications    TOP

Steroid or joint inflammation medication may also be recommended. They may be used if inflammation cannot be controlled with other treatments.

If heart complications develop, they will need to be treated. Specific treatment will depend on the specific problem.

Prevention    TOP

There is no known way to prevent Kawasaki disease.

RESOURCES:

American Heart Association
http://www.heart.org
Kawasaki Disease Foundation
http://www.kdfoundation.org

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
http://www.heartandstroke.com

References:

Kawasaki disease. American Heart Association website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated March 22, 2013. Accessed November 3, 2014.
Kawasaki disease. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated April 2014. Accessed November 3, 2014.
Kawasaki diseases. Kids Health—Nemours Foundation website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated September 2014. Accessed on November 3, 2014.
Kawasaki diseases. Cincinnati Children's Hospital website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated January 2013. Accessed November 3, 2014.
Kawasaki disease. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114968/Kawasaki-disease. Updated April 29, 2016. Accessed September 26. 2016.
Newburger JW, Takahashi M, et al. AHA scientific statement: diagnosis, treatment, and long-term management of Kawasaki Disease. Circulation. 2004;110:2747-2771.
Taubert KA, Shulman ST. Cardiovascular medicine: Kawasaki disease. Am Fam Physician. 1999;59(11).
Last reviewed November 2017 by Kari Kassir, MD
Last Updated: 11/14/2017

EBSCO Information Services is fully accredited by URAC. URAC is an independent, nonprofit health care accrediting organization dedicated to promoting health care quality through accreditation, certification and commendation.

This content is reviewed regularly and is updated when new and relevant evidence is made available. This information is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with questions regarding a medical condition.

To send comments or feedback to our Editorial Team regarding the content please email us at healthlibrarysupport@ebsco.com. Our Health Library Support team will respond to your email request within 2 business days.

Health Library: Editorial Policy | Privacy Policy | Terms and Conditions | Support
36000 Darnall Loop Fort Hood, Texas 76544-4752 | Phone: (254) 288-8000