Ewing sarcoma—tumors that usually develop in the cavity of the leg and arm bones
Fibrosarcoma and malignant fibrous histiocytoma—develop in soft tissues such as tendons, ligaments, fat, and muscle, and move to the bones of the legs, arms, and jaw
Giant cell tumor—a primary bone tumor, most common in the arm or leg bones
Chordoma—primary bone tumor that usually occurs in the skull or spine
Bone cancer occurs when cells divide without control or order. These cells grow together to form a tumor. These tumors are malignant. That means they can invade nearby tissues. It causes damage to nearby healthy tissue and can spread to other parts of the body.
The exact cause of primary bone cancer is unknown. Genes most likely play a role. Genetics play a major role in most cases.
Factors that may increase your chance of bone cancer include:
The results from tests will be used for staging. This will outline how far the cancer has spread and how aggressive it is. It will be used to help make a treatment plan.
Treatment depends on the type, stage, and location of the cancer. It also depends on your overall health. Talk with your doctor about the best treatment plan for you. Treatment options include:
Surgery is a common option for bone cancer. It is done to remove the cancer and healthy tissue around the area. This will help to make sure all cancer has been removed. Some nearby lymph nodes may also be removed. They will be tested to see if the cancer has spread.
Sometimes large areas of bone will need to be removed. Metal plates or bone grafts may be needed to support the bone after the cancer is removed. Sometimes the entire limb may need to be removed.
is the use of drugs to kill cancer cells. Chemotherapy may be given in many forms, including by pill, by injection, and through a tube called a catheter. The drugs enter the bloodstream and travel through the body. It may help to treat cancer that has spread. It is not used for all types of bone cancer.
Radiation will kill cancer cells. It can be used to clean an area of cancer cells and to shrink tumors. It may be used:
To treat tumors that cannot be removed through surgery
After surgery to kill any cancer cells that remain
To shrink tumors before surgery to reduce need for amputation
Radiation may be:
External—from a source outside the body
Internal—radioactive materials placed into the body near the cancer cells
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