Rotavirus

Definition

Rotavirus is an infection of the stomach and intestines. It is the most common cause of severe diarrhea in infants and young children.

Rotavirus can easily pass from person to person.

Digestive Tract

Digestive tract
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Causes    TOP

A rotavirus infection is caused by a specifc type of virus.

The virus is passed through the stool of someone with rotavirus. The infected stool can pass the virus to hands, surfaces, objects, food, or water. The virus then enters the body when any of these infected items come in contact with the mouth.

Risk Factors    TOP

People with the highest chance of rotavirus include:

  • Infants and young children
  • Children who attend daycare or any public childcare setting
  • Adults who care for young children, especially children who wear diapers
  • Children or adults with household members who have the virus

Symptoms    TOP

Symptoms of rotavirus may vary from person to person but may include:

  • Fever
  • Vomiting
  • Watery diarrhea
  • Abdominal pain

These symptoms can range from mild to severe. They often last about 3 to 8 days.

Diagnosis    TOP

You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. The infection may be diagnosed based on your symptoms. A stool sample may be taken. The sample will be examined for the presence of the virus.

Treatment    TOP

There is no treatment for rotavirus itself. Viruses do not respond to antibiotics.

Some treatments may be needed for symptoms caused by the infection. For example, dehydration may need to be treated with:

  • Rehydration fluids—such as an oral rehydration solution for children
  • IV fluids—if dehydration is severe

For children, the doctor may advise probiotics. Probiotics may help reduce the duration and severity of diarrhea symptoms.

Prevention    TOP

Good hygiene is the best way to help reduce the spread of rotavirus. This includes taking the following steps:

  • Wash your hands often.
  • If someone in your house has rotavirus, encourage everyone to wash their hands more often.
  • Always wash your hands:
    • After using the toilet
    • After changing a baby's diaper or helping a child use the toilet
    • Before handling or preparing food

There is a vaccine to prevent rotavirus in babies. Your baby may need two or three doses between the ages of 2-6 months.

RESOURCES:

US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
http://www.cdc.gov
US Food and Drug Administration
http://www.fda.gov

CANADIAN RESOURCES:

About Kids Health—The Hospital for Sick Children
http://www.aboutkidshealth.ca

References:

Rotavirus. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at:
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Updated May 12, 2014. Accessed November 3, 2014.
Rotavirus. American Academy of Pediatrics Healthy Children website. Available at:
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Updated October 13, 2014. Accessed November 3, 2014.
Rotavirus gastroenteritis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
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Updated February 7, 2013. Accessed February 20, 2013.
Rotavirus vaccine access and delivery. PATH website. Available at:
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Accessed November 3, 2014.
Rotavirus Vaccine Live Oral. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Updated September 8, 2014. Accessed November 3, 2014.
12/14/2009 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
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Leder K, Sinclair M, Forbes A, Wain D. Household clustering of gastroenteritis. Epidemiol Infect. 2009;137(12):1705-1712.
4/28/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Sindhu KN, Sowmyanarayanan TV, et al. Immune response and intestinal permeability in children with acute gastroenteritis treated with Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2014;58(8):1107-1115.
Last reviewed November 2014 by Kari Kassir, MD
Last Updated: 4/28/2014