Endoscopic Retrograde Cholangiopancreatography
Pronounced: en-doh-SKAH-pik REH-troh-grayd koh-LAN-jee-oh-PANG-kree-uh-TAH-gruh-fee
by Daus Mahnke, MD
Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is used to treat and diagnose problems in the liver, gallbladder, bile ducts, and pancreas. ERCP uses endoscopy and x-rays. An endoscopy is the use of a special scope with a camera to view your throat, stomach, and upper intestine.
Reasons for Procedure TOP
This procedure may be done if you are suspected of having:
Possible Complications TOP
Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. If you are planning to have an ERCP, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include:
Some factors that may increase the risk of complications include:
What to Expect TOP
Prior to Procedure
Talk to your doctor about your medications. You may be asked to stop taking some medications up to one week before the procedure, like:
Description of the Procedure TOP
You will lie on your stomach with your head turned to the right. A mouthpiece will be placed in your mouth to help keep it open. Your breathing and heart rate will be monitored. An endoscope will be put into your mouth. The scope will be slowly passed through your throat into your esophagus, stomach, and/or small intestine/duodenum. Air will be passed through the scope to open the small intestine/duodenum to see better.
The images will be viewed on a video monitor. The scope will be passed into the place where the ducts from the liver and pancreas open into the small intestine.
A tiny tube from the endoscope will then be passed into the opening of the bile and pancreatic ducts. A contrast material will be injected through this tube. The contrast will make the ducts visible on the x-ray. If a gallstone shows up on the images, it may be removed through the scope. Scarring or narrowing within the ducts can also be treated with instruments passed through the scope. Stents may be placed to keep the duct open. Tissue samples may also be taken through the scope for biopsy. The sample will be sent to a lab for further testing.
How Long Will It Take? TOP
It will take 30 minutes to two hours.
Will It Hurt? TOP
During the procedure, you may feel discomfort in your throat. After the procedure, your throat may be sore for a few days. In addition, you may feel bloated and need to belch.
Average Hospital Stay TOP
If the ERCP is diagnostic, you may go home the same day. If you have other procedures done through the scope, you may need to stay in the hospital overnight.
Postoperative Care TOP
At the Care Center
You will be observed in a recovery area for at least one hour before you are sent home.
Be sure to follow your doctor's instructions, which may include:
Call Your Doctor If Any of the Following Occurs TOP
After arriving home, contact your doctor if any of the following occurs:
In case of an emergency, call for medical help right away.
American Gastroenterological Association
American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
Canadian Digestive Health Foundation
Cohen S, Bacon BR, et al. National Institutes of Health State-of-the-Science Conference Statement: ERCP for diagnosis and therapy, January 14-16, 2002. Gastrointest Endosc. 2002 Dec;56(6):803-809.
ERCP (endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography). National Digestive Diseases Information Clearinghouse website. Available at:
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Updated June 29, 2012. Accessed May 30, 2013.
Therapeutic ERCP. American Society for Gastrointestinal Endoscopy website. Available at:
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Accessed May 30, 2013.
Last reviewed May 2013 by Daus Mahnke, MD; Michael Woods, MD
Last Updated: 3/18/2013