(Perineural Cyst; Sacral Nerve Root Cyst)
by Cynthia M. Johnson, MA
Tarlov cysts are abnormal sacs of spinal fluid that usually form around spinal root nerve fibers at the lower end (sacrum) of the spine.
The exact cause is not known. It may be due to problems with how a person's nerve sheath develops.
This problem is more common in women. It may also be more common in people who have connective tissue disorders, such as systemic lupus erythematosus and Marfan syndrome.
Most people do not have symptoms. Some people may only have symptoms after an event that causes it to become painful, such as trauma or childbirth.
Problems may be:
You will be asked about your symptoms and health history. A physical will be done. You may need to see a doctor who treats problems with the nervous system.
Images may be taken of the spine. This can be done with:
People who do not have symptoms may not need to be treated. The doctor will monitor the cyst for any changes.
The goal of treatment in people who do have symptoms is to ease pain. Options are:
Medicine may be given to ease nerve pain and swelling. Some options are:
People who are not helped by medicine may need procedures to treat the cyst. Options are:
People with severe symptoms or those who are not helped by other methods may need surgery to remove the cyst.
There are no current guidelines to prevent this health problem.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Tarlov Cyst Disease Foundation
Tarlov cyst information. Tarlov Cyst Disease Foundation website. Available at: https://www.tarlovcystfoundation.org/info. Accessed September 16, 2021.
Tarlov cysts. NORD—National Organization for Rare Disorders website. Available at: https://rarediseases.org/rare-diseases/tarlov-cysts. Accessed September 16, 2021.
Tarlov cysts. GARD—Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center website. Available at: https://rarediseases.info.nih.gov/diseases/9258/tarlov-cysts/cases/27316. Accessed September 16, 2021.
Last reviewed July 2021 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Mary-Beth Seymour, RN
Last Updated: 9/16/2021