Hypoxic Ischemic Encephalopathy
(Cerebral Hypoxia; HIE)
How to Say It: hye-POK-sik is-KEM-ik en-sef-a-lo-path-ee
by Cynthia M. Johnson, MA
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a brain injury. It happens when the brain does not get enough oxygen.
HIE can be deadly. Brain cells start to die after 4 minutes without oxygen.
Many health problems can cause a lack of oxygen to the brain. Some common ones are:
The risk of HIE is higher in people who have an injury or health problem that causes the brain to have a drop in blood flow and oxygen.
Problems may be mild to severe, such as:
A physical exam will be done. A health history is the biggest factor in making the diagnosis.
Blood tests may be done.
Pictures may need to be taken of your body. This can be done with:
Your brain and spinal cord may be tested. This can be done with:
Your heart function may also be tested.
Treatment depends on the cause of HIE. It also depends on how severe the damage is to the brain.
You may have:
There are no known guidelines to prevent HIE.
Brain Injury Association of America
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Ontario Brain Injury Association
Busl KM, Greer DM. Hypoxic-ischemic brain injury: pathophysiology, neuropathology and mechanisms. NeuroRehabilitation. 2010;26(1):5-13.
Hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Neurographics website. Available at:
...(Click grey area to select URL)
Accessed October 1, 2020.
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy in adults. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dyname.... Accessed October 1, 2020.
Last reviewed September 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Rimas Lukas, MD
Last Updated: 5/21/2021