by Amy Scholten, MPH
An ingrown toenail is when the edge of a toenail grows into the skin of the toe. This can happen with any of the toes. However, it is most common in one of the big toes.
Common causes are improper nail care and pressure or injury to the toes. This can make the nail curve and grow into the skin.
Ingrown toenails are more common in people with family members who have them. Other things that may raise the chance of an ingrown toenail are:
Ingrown toenails may not cause symptoms at first. When symptoms occur, they may include:
The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. A physical exam may be done. The doctor will know it is an ingrown toenail when they see it.
Treatment depends on how severe the ingrown toenail is. It also depends on if the person has other health problems. Medical care is needed for those who have:
People over 50 years of age should also talk to their doctor. General treatment options include:
It may help to:
Medical care may include:
If ingrown toenails happen often, or the ingrown toenail is severe, the doctor may:
To help reduce the chances of an ingrown toenail:
American Podiatric Medical Association
Foot Health Facts—American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Canadian Podiatric Medical Association
Ingrown toenails. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: https://familydoctor.org/condition/ingrown-toenails. Accessed December 18, 2020.
Ingrown toenail. Foot Health Facts—American College of Foot and Ankle Surgeons website. Available at: https://www.foothealthfacts.org/conditions/ingrown-toenail. Accessed December 18, 2020.
Paronychia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/paronychia. Accessed December 18, 2020.
Tian,J, et al., A new perspective on the nail plate for treatment of ingrown toenail. Dermatol Pract Concept. 2018 Jan; 8(1): 22–27.
Last reviewed February 2021 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Mary-Beth Seymour, RN
Last Updated: 12/18/2020