(Rabbit Fever; Deer-Fly Fever)
Tularemia is a rare bacterial infection. The effects of the infection will depend on where the exposure occurs. It can be deadly if it is not treated.
Tularemia is caused by specific bacteria. It is normally found in small animals such as mice and rabbits. The bacteria can pass to humans through:
The infection does not pass between people.
Factors that may increase the chances of tularemia:
Symptoms usually occur 3-5 days after exposure. The symptoms will depend on where the bacteria entered the body, the type and amount of bacteria you were exposed to, and the health of your immune system.
Pneumonic symptoms (lung problems):
Ulceroglandular symptoms (skin and lymph gland problems):
Glandular symptoms (problems in lymph nodes):
Oculoglandular symptoms (problems in eyes and lymph nodes):
Oropharyngeal symptoms (mouth and throat problems):
Typhoidal symptoms (full body problems):
Symptoms of progression from other types:
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. You will be also asked about possible sources of exposure. A physical exam will also be done.
Your body fluids may be tested. This can be done with:
Images may be needed. This can be done with a chest x-ray.
Antibiotics can treat most tularemia infections. The first few doses of antibiotics will be injected in a muscle or given through an IV. You may need to take antibiotics by mouth for a few days after the initial dose. Treatment can last for 10-14 days. Make sure to take all of your medication even if you feel better.
Tularemia infections are reported to public health officials. This will help them track any outbreaks.
Measures to prevent the disease include:
Center for Health Security
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
Ontario Ministry of Health
Public Health Agency of Canada
Tularemia. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://emergency.cdc.gov/agent/tularemia. Accessed January 29, 2021.
Tularemia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113638/Tularemia . Accessed January 29, 2021.
Tularemia. Illinois Department of Public Health website. Available at:
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Accessed January 29, 2021.
Last reviewed March 2020 by EBSCO Medical Review Board David L. Horn, MD, FACP
Last Updated: 1/29/2021