(Enteric Fever; Paratyphoid Fever)
by Amy Scholten, MPH
Typhoid fever is an infection from bacteria. It can lead to serious illness and death. It needs to be treated right away.
The infection is caused by certain bacteria. It is in the stools and body fluids of an infected person. It can get passed into food and drinks. This can happen when an infected person has unclean hands. It can also happen if food and water are tainted with sewage.
Typhoid is common in places with poor sanitation. The risk of getting sick is highest in parts of India, Africa, and Asia.
Things that raise the risk are:
Mild symptoms may be:
Severe symptoms may be:
The doctor will ask about symptoms, health, and travel history. A physical exam will be done. The condition may be diagnosed with bone marrow biopsy, and blood and stool tests.
Typhoid is treated with antibiotics. Other options are:
In places where typhoid is common, the risk may be lowered by:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
World Health Organization
Public Health Agency of Canada
Travel and Tourism—Government of Canada
Crump, J. Progress in typhoid fever epidemiology. Clin Infect Dis. 2019; 68(1): S4–S9.
Enteric fever (typhoid and paratyphoid fever). EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/enteric-fever-typhoid-and-paratyphoid-fever. Accessed January 29, 2021.
Typhoid fever. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/typhoid-fever/ Accessed January 29, 2021.
Typhoid fever. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/infectious-diseases/gram-negative-bacilli/typhoid-fever. Accessed January 29, 2021.
Typhoid VIS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/typhoid.html. Accessed January 29, 2021.
Last reviewed September 2020 by David L. Horn, MD, FACP
Last Updated: 1/28/2021