Adjustment disorder is a group of symptoms linked to a stressful event. These symptoms are more severe than they should be. This can make it hard to return to normal day-to-day life. The event may be personal, like a divorce, or large-scale event, like a natural disaster.
Adjustment disorder is caused by stress or changes in your life. Genes and past stressful events may also play a role.
Things that may increase the risk of adjustment disorder are:
Any stressful event can lead to an adjustment disorder. Some examples include:
Adjustment disorder starts within 3 months of the event. It can last up to 6 months or more after the stress is gone. There are different types of adjustment disorder. Symptoms can vary but may include:
The doctor will ask about symptoms and past health. They may also ask about any major changes or problems in daily life. The doctor will use the answers to make a diagnosis.
Treatment can help to ease the impact of the stress. This may lower the effect on day to day life.
Counseling includes talk therapy. The type of therapy will vary based on needs. It can include coaching about stress and learning habits that may help to address them. Therapy can also help to address problems in relationships. It may include one-on-one, couple, family, or group sessions.
Therapy may also work on the thought process around stress and coping skills. It may help to manage stressful events in the future.
Medicines may be used to ease some symptoms. It may only be used for a short period to help progress in therapy.
There are no steps to prevent adjustment disorders since the cause is unclear.
American Psychiatric Association
National Institute of Mental Health
Canadian Mental Health Association
Canadian Psychiatric Association
Adjustment disorder. Johns Hopkins Psychiatry Guide. Available at: https://www.hopkinsguides.com/hopkins/view/Johns_Hopkins_Psychiatry_Guide/787068/all/Adjustment_Disorder. Updated October 29, 2017. Accessed April 6, 2020.
Fernández A, Mendive JM, Salvador-Carulla L, et al. Adjustment disorders in primary care: prevalence, recognition and use of services. Br J Psychiatry. 2012;201:137-42.
Sundquist J, Ohlsson H, Sundquist K, et al. Common adult psychiatric disorders in Swedish primary care where most mental health patients are treated. BMC Psychiatry. 2017;17(1):235.
Adjustment disorders. Merck Manual Professional Version website. Available at: https://www.merckmanuals.com/professional/psychiatric-disorders/anxiety-and-stressor-related-disorders/adjustment-disorders. Updated July 2018. Accessed August 30, 2018.
Last reviewed May 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Adrian Preda, MD Last Updated: 4/6/2020