Bartholin glands are on either side of the entrance to the vagina. A pocket of fluid can develop around these glands. The pocket is called a cyst. If it becomes infected, it is called an abscess.
Bartholin glands make fluid that lubricates the vagina. The glands can become blocked and cause a backup of fluid. This fluid creates the cyst.
Bacteria or viruses can get into the trapped fluid. It is an easy place for them to grow and create an infection.
Factors that increase the risk of Bartholin gland cyst include:
Symptoms may include:
You will be asked about your symptoms and past health. A physical exam will be done. The doctor may be able to make a diagnosis based on the exam.
The doctor may need to rule out other conditions. This may include testing fluids or tissue from the cyst.
Small cysts that are not causing symptoms may not need treatment. Cysts that are causing problems may be treated at home with:
Large or more bothersome cysts may need a procedure to help it drain. Options include:
Antibiotics may be needed if there is an infection caused by bacteria.
There is no known way to prevent a Bartholin gland cyst.
American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists
Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians
The Society of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists of Canada
Bartholin gland cyst and abscess. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T113909/Bartholin-gland-cyst-and-abscess. Updated August 2, 2018. Accessed February 12, 2019.
Bartholin’s cyst. NHS Choices website. Available at: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Bartholins-cyst/Pages/Introduction.aspx. Updated April 9, 2015. Accessed February 12, 2019.
Bartholin’s gland cyst. Family Doctor—American Academy of Family Physicians website. Available at: http://familydoctor.org/familydoctor/en/diseases-conditions/bartholins-gland-cyst.html. Updated July 2017. Accessed February 12, 2019.
Omole F, Simmons B, Hacker Y. Management of Bartholin’s duct cyst and gland abscess. Am Fam Physician. 2003;68(1):135-140.
Last reviewed February 2019 by Daniel A. Ostrovsky, MD Last Updated: 2/12/2019