Buprenorphine and the combination of buprenorphine and naloxone are used to treat opioid dependence (addiction to opioid drugs, including heroin and narcotic painkillers). Buprenorphine is in a class of medications called opioid partial agonist-antagonists and naloxone is in a class of medications called opioid antagonists. Buprenorphine alone and the combination of buprenorphine and naloxone work to prevent withdrawal symptoms when someone stops taking opioid drugs by producing similar effects to these drugs.
Buprenorphine comes as a sublingual tablet. The combination of buprenorphine and naloxone comes as a sublingual tablet (Zubsolv) and as a sublingual film (Suboxone) to take under the tongue and as a buccal film (Bunavail) to apply between the gum and cheek. After your doctor determines an appropriate dose, these products are usually taken once a day. To help you remember to take or apply buprenorphine or buprenorphine and naloxone, take or apply it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription label carefully, and ask your doctor or pharmacist to explain any part you do not understand. Take or apply buprenorphine or buprenorphine and naloxone exactly as directed. Do not take or apply more or less of it or take or apply it more often than prescribed by your doctor.
Your doctor may decide to start your treatment with buprenorphine, which you will take in the doctor's office. You will start on a low dose of buprenorphine and your doctor will increase your dose for 1 or 2 days before switching you to buprenorphine and naloxone. Depending on the type of opioid that you were taking, a different option that your doctor may choose is to start you on treatment with buprenorphine and naloxone right away. Your doctor may increase or decrease your buprenorphine and naloxone dose depending on your response.
If you are taking the sublingual tablets, place the tablets under your tongue until they completely melt. If you are taking more than two tablets, either place them all under your tongue at the same time or place them under your tongue up to two at a time. Do not chew the tablets or swallow them whole. Do not eat, drink, or talk until the tablet dissolves completely.
If you are using the buccal film, use your tongue to wet the inside of your cheek or rinse your mouth with water before you apply the film. Apply the film with a dry finger against the inside of the cheek. Then remove your finger and the film will stick to the inside of your cheek. If you are to use two films, place another film on the inside of your other cheek at the same time. Do not apply films on top of each other and do not apply more than two films to the inside of the mouth at one time. Leave the film(s) in the mouth until they dissolve. Do not cut, tear, chew, swallow, touch or move the film while it dissolves. Do not eat or drink anything until the film dissolves completely.
If you are using the sublingual film, rinse your mouth with water before you place the film. Place the film with a dry finger under your tongue to the right or left of the center and hold the film in place for 5 seconds. If you are using two films, place the other one on the opposite side under the tongue. Do not put the films on top of or near each other. Do not use more than two films at one time. Do not cut, tear, chew, swallow, touch or move the film while it dissolves. Do not eat or drink anything until the film dissolves completely.
If you need to switch from one buprenorphine or buprenorphine and naloxone product to another, your doctor may need to adjust your dose. Each time you receive your medication, check to be sure that you have received the buprenorphine product that was prescribed for you. Ask your pharmacist if you have are not sure that you received the right medication.
Do not stop taking or using buprenorphine or buprenorphine and naloxone without talking to your doctor. Stopping buprenorphine or buprenorphine and naloxone too quickly can cause withdrawal symptoms. Your doctor will tell you when and how to stop taking or using buprenorphine or buprenorphine and naloxone. If you suddenly stop taking or using buprenorphine or buprenorphine and naloxone, you may experience withdrawal symptoms such as hot or cold flushes, restlessness, teary eyes, runny nose, sweating, chills, muscle pain, vomiting, or diarrhea.
This medication may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information.
Before taking or using buprenorphine or buprenorphine and naloxone,
Unless your doctor tells you otherwise, continue your normal diet.
Take or apply the missed dose as soon as you remember it. However, if it is almost time for the next dose, skip the missed dose and continue your regular dosing schedule. Do not take or apply a double dose to make up for a missed one.
Buprenorphine or buprenorphine and naloxone may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away:
Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of these symptoms or those listed in the IMPORTANT WARNINGS or SPECIAL PRECAUTIONS sections, call your doctor immediately:
Buprenorphine or buprenorphine and naloxone may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual problems while taking or using this medication.
If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting program online ( Web Site ) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).
Keep this medication in the packaging it came in, tightly closed, and out of reach of children. Buprenorphine or buprenorphine and naloxone can be a target for people who abuse prescription medications or street drugs. Store it in a safe place so that no one else can use it accidentally or on purpose. Store buprenorphine or buprenorphine and naloxone at room temperature and away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Do not freeze buprenorphine or buprenorphine and naloxone.
You must immediately dispose of any medication that is outdated or no longer needed. Dispose of unneeded tablets or films by removing them from the packaging and flushing them down the toilet. Call your pharmacist or the manufacturer if you have questions or need help disposing of unneeded medication.
It is important to keep all medication out of sight and reach of children as many containers (such as weekly pill minders and those for eye drops, creams, patches, and inhalers) are not child-resistant and young children can open them easily. To protect young children from poisoning, always lock safety caps and immediately place the medication in a safe location – one that is up and away and out of their sight and reach. Web Site
In case of overdose, call the poison control helpline at 1-800-222-1222. Information is also available online at Web Site. If the victim has collapsed, had a seizure, has trouble breathing, or can't be awakened, immediately call emergency services at 911.
Symptoms of overdose may include the following:
Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor will order certain lab tests to check your body's response to buprenorphine and naloxone.
Before having any laboratory test (especially those that involve methylene blue), tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are using buprenorphine or buprenorphine and naloxone.
In case of an emergency, you or a family member should tell the treating doctor or emergency room staff that you are taking or using buprenorphine or buprenorphine and naloxone.
Do not inject buprenorphine or buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film or tablets. Severe reactions may happen, including withdrawal symptoms.
Do not let anyone else take or use your medication. Ask your pharmacist any questions you have about refilling your prescription.
It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each time you visit a doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with you in case of emergencies.
¶ This branded product is no longer on the market. Generic alternatives may be available.
AHFS® Consumer Medication Information. © Copyright, The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists, Inc., 7272 Wisconsin Avenue, Bethesda, Maryland. All Rights Reserved. Duplication for commercial use must be authorized by ASHP.
Selected Revisions: February 15, 2018.