Overweight or obesity in children is a serious health concern. Overweight children are more likely to have high cholesterol, high blood pressure, and type 2 diabetes. They also may deal with social discrimination from their peers, which can lead to poor self-esteem and depression. What’s more, overweight kids have a higher chance of having bone and joint disease or becoming overweight or obese adults.
But what does this mean? How do you know if your child is overweight? The best way to find out is to schedule a visit with your child's doctor, who can tell you if your child’s weight is in a healthy range. But if you are concerned that your child may be overweight, there are some other ways you can assess your child’s weight.
The doctor will likely measure your child’s height and weight to monitor growth patterns during regular appointments. Most doctors use clinical growth charts to do this.
The doctor will use your child’s height and weight to determine what percentile your child falls into according to an age- and gender-appropriate growth chart. A percentile will tell you how your child’s height and weight compare to a nationally representative group of children of the same age and gender. For example, if your child falls into the 70th percentile for weight, approximately 70% of children your child’s age and gender are at a lower weight than your child.
Clinical growth charts can be accessed at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website.
For children aged 2-20, BMI (body mass index)-for-age charts are a way to assess their weight in relation to their height. Since childrens’ and teens’ body fatness changes as they grow, the cutoff points that adults use for BMI are not applicable to children. Instead, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has developed charts for assessing children’s BMI according to their age and gender. Like clinical growth charts, BMI-for-age charts indicate which percentile your child falls into.
BMI-for-age growth charts can be accessed at the National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion website.
The CDC has established percentile cutoff points to help doctors and parents determine whether a child is of a healthy weight. Body composition (percentage of muscle and fat) can influence these numbers, but for most children, the following cutoff points apply accurately to children aged 2-20:
|Classification||Cutoff Point of BMI for age|
|Underweight||Less than the 5th percentile|
|Healthy weight||5th precentile-84th percentile|
|Obese||95th percentile or greater|
If your child is overweight, the National Institutes of Health (NIH) suggests you do the following:
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Disorders
AboutKidsHealth—The Hospital for Sick Children
About BMI for children and teens. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/childrens_bmi/about_childrens_bmi.html. Updated May 15, 2015. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Clinical growth charts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/clinical_charts.htm. Updated August 4, 2009. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Helping your child. Weight Control Information website. Available at: http://www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/weight-control/helping-your-child-tips-parents/Pages/helping-your-child-tips-for-parents.aspx.pdf. Updated January 2012. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Obesity in children and adolescents. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated January 12, 2016. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Prevalence of overweight among children and adolescents: United States, Trends 1963–1965 Through 2007-2008. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hestat/obesity_child_07_08/obesity_child_07_08.htm. Updated June 4, 2010. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Use and interpretation of the CDC growth charts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: http://www.cdc.gov/nccdphp/dnpa/growthcharts/resources/growthchart.pdf. Updated May 2013. Accessed January 27, 2016.
Last reviewed January 2016 by Michael Woods, MD Last Updated: 3/13/2014