Tuberculosis, or TB, is an infection from bacteria. It usually affects the lungs. TB can also infect other areas of the body such as the kidneys, spine, or brain.
TB spreads when an infected person coughs or sneezes.
TB is no longer the leading cause of death in the US. However, TB is still a major problem in Africa and other parts of the world. People with HIV also have a higher risk of getting TB.
Symptoms depend on where the bacteria are in the body. In the lungs, TB symptoms may be:
TB can usually be treated with antibiotics. Without treatment, it can be fatal.
The Bacillus Calmette-Guerin vaccine, or BCG, can help prevent TB. However, this vaccine does not always protect people from getting TB.
The vaccine contains live, weakened bacteria. It is given as shot in the arm.
The BCG vaccine is advised for:
The vaccine is usually given one time. It may be given twice in some cases.
The vaccine may cause some to test positive for TB even though they do not have it. Blood tests can check for TB in those not affected by a prior BCG vaccine.
Common side effects of the vaccine include:
Serious side effects are rare. They include serious illness or death.
Symptoms of an allergic reaction require medical care right away.
The vaccine is not advised for those who:
In a TB outbreak, infected people would be given antibiotics and isolated.
WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
The BCG World Atlas on BCG Policies
Basic TB facts. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/tb/topic/basics/default.htm. Accessed August 24, 2021.
BCG vaccine. DailyMed website. Available at: https://dailymed.nlm.nih.gov/dailymed/drugInfo.cfm?setid=a83f0b99-9038-4c5a-aaac-8792b32838fe. Accessed August 24, 2021.
Divangahi M, Behr MA. Cracking the vaccine code in tuberculosis. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2018;197(4):427-432.
Pulmonary tuberculosis. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/pulmonary-tuberculosis-27. Accessed August 24, 2021.
Tuberculosis (TB). American Lung Association website. Available at: https://www.lung.org/lung-health-diseases/lung-disease-lookup/tuberculosis . Accessed August 24, 2021.
Tuberculosis (TB) vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/vpd/tb/index.html. Accessed August 24, 2021.
Last reviewed July 2021 by EBSCO Medical Review Board David L. Horn, MD, FACP Last Updated: 8/24/2021