Rabies is an infection caused by a virus. People get rabies through a bite or a scratch from an infected animal. Wild animals like bats, raccoons, skunks, and foxes are a common source of the virus in the United States. In other parts of the world, the virus is carried by unvaccinated dogs.
Symptoms may not appear for weeks or months. A person may have:
This virus is deadly. Treatment is needed right away.
The vaccine is made of inactivated rabies virus. It is given as a series of shots in the arm in adults or in the thigh in children.
There are two reasons someone should get the rabies vaccines:
This is for people at high risk of exposure to rabies, such as:
People who may be exposed to the virus a lot should be tested for immunity on a periodic basis. Booster doses may be needed.
This vaccine is given to anyone who has been bitten by an animal or was exposed to rabies. The vaccine is given in 4 doses. One dose is given right away. Three more doses are given on the third, seventh, and fourteenth days. People with immune system problems may need a fifth dose on day 28.
A shot of rabies-specific immune globulin (RIG) should be given along with the first dose. If possible, the full dose should be given at the site of the wound and nearby area. Any RIG that is left will be given into a muscle at a distant site from the vaccinated area.
A person who has been previously vaccinated for rabies should get 2 doses of the vaccine and does not need RIG.
Common problems are:
Talk with your doctor before being vaccinated if you:
The vaccine may be postponed in someone who needs it for pre-exposure protection.
Anyone who has been exposed to rabies will need the vaccine right away.
To lower the risk of rabies:
In the event of an outbreak, authorities will identify and control the source of the outbreak. They will increase how often they monitor wild and domestic animals. Steps will be taken to increase animal rabies vaccination rates. Safety education will be given to the public.
WHERE CAN I GET MORE INFORMATION?
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention
World Health Organization
Rabies. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/rabies. Accessed July 9, 2021.
Rabies. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/condition/rabies. Accessed July 9, 2021.
Rabies immune globulin. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/drug-monograph/rabies-immune-globulin. Accessed July 9, 2021.
Rabies vaccine. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: https://www.dynamed.com/drug-monograph/rabies-vaccine. Accessed July 9, 2021.
Rabies VIS. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention website. Available at: https://www.cdc.gov/vaccines/hcp/vis/vis-statements/rabies.html. Accessed July 9, 2021.
Last reviewed July 2021 by EBSCO Medical Review Board David L. Horn, MD, FACP Last Updated: 7/12/2021