Contact dermatitis is inflammation of the outer layers of the skin caused by contact with a particular substance. It usually presents as a rash that is confined to the specific area of the body where the contact occurred.
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Contact dermatitis is usually caused by either an irritant or an allergen. An irritant is a substance that irritates the skin. An allergen is a substance that causes an allergic reaction. People may be exposed to certain substances for years and never have a problem, and then suddenly develop contact dermatitis.
Some common causes of contact dermatitis include:
Factors that may increase your chances of contact dermatitis:
The symptoms of contact dermatitis may vary from person to person. Scratching and rubbing can cause or worsen some symptoms. The rash is usually confined to the area where the contact with the substance occurred, but occasionally may spread. If contact with the substance occurred all over the body such as with a body lotion, the rash may be large.
You will be asked about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done. You may be referred to a doctor who specializes in skin disorders (dermatologist) or allergies (allergist).
The primary goal of treatment is to identify the substance causing the reaction and remove or avoid it. This could take several days or weeks of avoiding certain substances.
If you cannot identify the cause of your skin reaction, you may need to have a skin patch test. In a skin patch test, a small amount of the suspected substance is applied to the skin and covered with tape. Another patch without the substance on it is also attached to the skin. Both patches are removed after a period of time. If your skin is red and swollen under the suspected substance patch, and not under the other patch, you are probably allergic to that substance.
Treatment also focuses on caring for skin and relieving symptoms. Methods include:
Skin care guidelines may include:
Over the counter medication may help manage symptoms. options include:
If over the counter medication is not helping, your doctor may make other recommendations. Options include:
Phototherapy treatment may also be used in severe cases. It may help relieve some inflammation.
To prevent contact dermatitis:
American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology
American Academy of Dermatology
Canadian Dermatology Association
Bourke J, Coulson I, English J, British Association of Dermatologists. Guidelines for care of contact dermatitis. Br J Dermatol. 2001;145(6):877-885.
Contact dermatitis. EBSCO DynaMed Plus website. Available at:http://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114930/Contact-dermatitis. Updated May 10, 2017. Accessed October 2, 2017.
11/6/2009 DynaMed Plus Systematic Literature Surveillancehttp://www.dynamed.com/topics/dmp~AN~T114930/Contact-dermatitis: Kütting B, Baumeister T, Weistenhöfer W, et al. Effectiveness of skin protection measures in prevention of occupational hand eczema: results of a prospective randomized controlled trial over a follow-up period of 1 year. Br J Dermatol. 2010;162(2):362-370.
Last reviewed September 2018 by EBSCO Medical Review Board Marcin Chwistek, MD Last Updated: 2/7/2018